Old Sailors' Almanac


Week 39, 2020

Previous Week   September 21, 2020 - September 27, 2020  Next Week

Lewis and Clark return to St. Louis after exploring the Pacific Northwest on September 23, 1806

Lewis and Clark return to St. Louis after exploring the Pacific Northwest on September 23, 1806

Lewis and Clark return to St. Louis after exploring the Pacific Northwest: Amid much public excitement, American explorers Meriwether Lewis and William Clark return to St. Louis, Missouri, from the first recorded overland journey from the Mississippi River to the Pacific coast and back. The Lewis and Clark Expedition had set off more than two years before to explore the territory of the Louisiana Purchase.

Lewis and Clark return to St. Louis after exploring the Pacific Northwest on September 23, 1806

Even before the U.S. government concluded purchase negotiations with France, President Thomas Jefferson commissioned his private secretary Meriwether Lewis and William Clark, an army captain, to lead an expedition into what is now the U.S. Northwest. On May 14, the “Corps of Discovery”, featuring some two dozen men, left St. Louis for the American interior.

The expedition traveled up the Missouri River in six canoes and two longboats and wintered in Dakota before crossing into Montana, where they first saw the Rocky Mountains. On the other side of the Continental Divide, they were met by Sacagawea’s tribe, the Shoshone Indians, who sold them horses for their journey down through the Bitterroot Mountains.

Lewis and Clark return to St. Louis after exploring the Pacific Northwest on September 23, 1806

After passing through the dangerous rapids of the Clearwater and Snake rivers in canoes, the explorers reached the calm of the Columbia River, which led them to the sea. On November 8, 1805, the expedition arrived at the Pacific Ocean, the first European explorers to do so by an overland route from the east. After pausing there for winter, the explorers began their long journey back to St. Louis.

On September 23, 1806, after two and a half years, the expedition returned to the city, bringing back a wealth of information about the largely unexplored region, as well as valuable U.S. claims to Oregon Territory.

History Channel / Wikipedia / Encyclopedia Britannica / U.S. History.org / National Archives.gov / Lewis & Clark.org / U.S. National Park Service.gov/ / Encyclopedia Virginia.org / Lewis and Clark return to St. Louis after exploring the Pacific Northwest on September 23, 1806 (YouTube) video

“This Day in History”

This Day in History September 23

• 1122 Investiture Controversy: Concordat of Worms: Pope Callixtus II and Holy Roman Emperor Henry V agree to the to put an end to the Investiture Controversy.

• 1338 Hundred Years' War: Battle of Arnemuiden: French force defeats the English; is the first naval battle of the Hundred Years' War and the first naval battle in which gunpowder artillery is used.

• 1568 Battle of San Juan de Ulúa: Spanish naval forces rout an English fleet near Veracruz.

• 1641 Merchant Royal carrying a treasure of over 100,000 pounds of gold (worth over £1 billion today), is lost at sea off Land's End.

• 1779 American Revolution: Battle of Flamborough Head on Guadalcanal begins: U.S. Marines attack Japanese units along the Matanikau River.

• 1780 American Revolution: British Major John André is arrested as a spy by American soldiers exposing Benedict Arnold's change of sides.

• 1846 Planet Neptune is discovered.

• 1942 World War II: Matanikau action: Italian troops conquer Sidi Barrani.

• 1943 World War II: The Nazi puppet state known as the Italian Social Republic is founded.

• 1950 Korean War: Battle of Hill 282: First U.S. friendly-fire incident on British military personnel since World War II.

• 2004 Hurricane Jeanne: Over 3,000 people die in Haiti after massive flooding and mudslides.

Understanding Military Terminology: At the Marine Corps Museum: Norman Rockwell's “The War Hero”

Understanding Military Terminology

Passage of Lines

(DOD) An operation in which a force moves forward or rearward through another force’s combat positions with the intention of moving into or out of contact with the enemy.

Joint Publications (JP 3-18) Joint Forcible Entry Operations

Passive Air Defense

All measures, other than active air defense, taken to minimize the effectiveness of hostile air and missile threats against friendly forces and assets.

See also Air Defense.

Joint Publications (JP 3-01) Countering Air and Missile Threats

Passive Defense

Measures taken to reduce the probability of and to minimize the effects of damage caused by hostile action without the intention of taking the initiative.

See also Active Defense.

Joint Publications (JP 3-60) Joint Targeting - Just Security

Passive Mine

1. A mine whose anticountermining device has been operated preventing the firing mechanism from being actuated.

2. A mine which does not emit a signal to detect the presence of a target.

Joint Publications (JP 3-15) Barriers, Obstacles, and Mine Warfare for Joint Operations

“The Odyssey”

The Old Salt’s Corner

“The Odyssey”

Book XX

Ulysses slept in the cloister upon an undressed bullock's hide, on the top of which he threw several skins of the sheep the suitors had eaten, and Eurynome threw a cloak over him after he had laid himself down. There, then, Ulysses lay wakefully brooding upon the way in which he should kill the suitors; and by and by, the women who had been in the habit of misconducting themselves with them, left the house giggling and laughing with one another. This made Ulysses very angry, and he doubted whether to get up and kill every single one of them then and there, or to let them sleep one more and last time with the suitors. His heart growled within him, and as a bitch with puppies growls and shows her teeth when she sees a stranger, so did his heart growl with anger at the evil deeds that were being done: but he beat his breast and said, “Heart, be still, you had worse than this to bear on the day when the terrible Cyclops ate your brave companions; yet you bore it in silence till your cunning got you safe out of the cave, though you made sure of being killed.”

Thus he chided with his heart, and checked it into endurance, but he tossed about as one who turns a paunch full of blood and fat in front of a hot fire, doing it first on one side and then on the other, that he may get it cooked as soon as possible, even so did he turn himself about from side to side, thinking all the time how, single handed as he was, he should contrive to kill so large a body of men as the wicked suitors. But by and by Minerva came down from heaven in the likeness of a woman, and hovered over his head saying, “My poor unhappy man, why do you lie awake in this way? This is your house: your wife is safe inside it, and so is your son who is just such a young man as any father may be proud of.”

“Goddess”, answered Ulysses, “all that you have said is true, but I am in some doubt as to how I shall be able to kill these wicked suitors single handed, seeing what a number of them there always are. And there is this further difficulty, which is still more considerable. Supposing that with Jove's and your assistance I succeed in killing them, I must ask you to consider where I am to escape to from their avengers when it is all over.”

“For shame”, replied Minerva, “why, any one else would trust a worse ally than myself, even though that ally were only a mortal and less wise than I am. Am I not a goddess, and have I not protected you throughout in all your troubles? I tell you plainly that even though there were fifty bands of men surrounding us and eager to kill us, you should take all their sheep and cattle, and drive them away with you. But go to sleep; it is a very bad thing to lie awake all night, and you shall be out of your troubles before long.”

“The Odyssey” - Book XX continued ...

~ Homer

Written 800 B.C.E

Translated by Samuel Butler

“The Odyssey” - Table Of Contents

“I’m Just Sayin’”

“I’m Just Sayin”

“Out of suffering have emerged the strongest souls.

The most massive characters are seared with scars.”

“We choose our joys and sorrows long before we experience them.”

“I prefer to be a dreamer among the humblest,

with visions to be realized,

than lord among those without dreams and desires.”

~ Khalil Gibran

“Thought for the Day”

“Thought for the Day”

“Many admire, few know.”

“Science is the father of knowledge,

but opinion breeds ignorance.”

“A wise man should consider that health is the greatest of human blessings,

and learn how by his own thought to derive benefit from his illnesses.”

“Make a habit of two things:

to help;

or at least to do no harm.”

~ Hippocrates

“What I Have Learned”

“What I Learned”

“Next to the dog,

the wastebasket is man’s best friend.”

“Professionals are people who can do their job when they don’t feel like it.

Amateurs are people who can’t do their job when they do feel like it.”

~ Anonymous

Will we ever reach the end of the Periodic Table? Mr. Answer Man Please Tell Us: Will we ever reach the end of the Periodic Table?

Take a look around: Every single thing you see is made up of elements in the periodic table. Ever since scientists first cobbled together these catalogs of nature’s building blocks in the 19th century, they have wondered if there was any end to the elements and their variants, called isotopes. It’s a profound question at the heart of the physical universe.

We have 118 elements on the books, distinguished by the number of protons in their nuclei. About two dozen of these elements, however, do not occur in nature.

Over the years, physicists have conjured new, short-lived and typically supersized elements (as defined by their atomic number, or proton count)by smashing atomic nuclei together in particle accelerators. Hordes of interesting isotopes also have emerged from these colliders.

Each new record-setting “superheavy” element tacked on to the periodic table gives us insight into natural laws and their limits. Meanwhile, isotopes — variants of an element with different numbers of neutrons in their nuclei — can have distinct properties that make them scientifically and industrially valuable. For example, the most frequently used isotope for medical imaging is an isotope of technetium, the first element ever artificially synthesized in 1937. And many smoke detectors contain an isotope of americium, a man-made, radioactive superheavy element originally forged in 1944.

Scientists are eager to keep filling out the periodic table. One big reason: the hope of reaching the conjectured “island of stability”. There, “magic numbers” - as normally dour physicists call them — of protons and neutrons should play together nicely, making for a more stable nucleus.

This should afford new superheavy atoms much longer lifetimes than their rapidly decaying neighbors on the periodic table. Superheavy nuclei, by their fundamentally unstable and synthetic nature, behave in different and unpredictable ways compared with the nuclei of naturally occurring elements, so no one’s sure just where the island will be. But researchers think we’re close.

Annoyingly, though, we might first hit a wall when it comes to creating new elements beyond the 92 natural and 26 synthetic elements that currently exist. That’s because today’s atom-smashing methods are near their theoretical and technological limits.

“We think we have a path forward to element 120”, says Dawn Shaughnessy, a chemist and project leader of the heavy element program at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory.

“Whether we can get beyond 120 is anyone’s guess”, she says.

To keep the periodic table party going, in the coming decade, labs will be revving up next-generation atomic colliders to crank out exotic elements and probe how nature itself produces all the elements of the universe.

“When you make heavier and heavier elements, you make elements with very different chemical properties”, says Walt Loveland, a professor of chemistry at Oregon State University. “That can inform us how atomic structure works.”

Pushing nature’s envelope could also shed light on the ultimate origins of matter in the Big Bang and stellar furnaces, how particles self-organize into discrete elements and more.

“We’re trying to answer the fundamental question, ‘Where does matter end?'” says Shaughnessy.

Will we ever reach the end of the Periodic Table?

New Elements on the Block

Manufacturing elements is straightforward, but not easy. Electric and magnetic fields accelerate beams of lighter elements smack-dab into a heavier target element. Building bigger elements is basic math: beam element protons plus target element protons. The vast majority of the time, the colliding beam bounces off the target, but occasionally they fuse into a new, sought-after element.

The resulting superheavy element, along with various smaller particles, then careens into silicon detectors surrounding the target. The detectors distinguish the nuclei based upon the energies of the detected particles.

The most recent elemental advance came last year when nuclear scientists at the Helmholtz Center for Heavy Ion Research in Germany bombarded a lump of 97-proton berkelium with a beam of 20-proton calcium ions. The result was a few atoms of the 117-proton element, which still awaits a formal name. (So does element 118, discovered in 2002.)

Like most superheavy elements, 117 proved unstable, lasting only a fraction of a second before splitting apart into lighter elements. But one of its initial breakdown products was a never-before-seen isotope, lawrencium-266 (meaning lawrencium, element number 103, with 163 neutrons). It lasted 11 hours — an eternity in the superheavy realm. That exciting find hints that the island of stability is coming into view.

Forging Onward

To push on to element 120 and the predicted island, researchers will make use of the Super Heavy Element Factory (SHE-Factory) in Dubna, Russia, which should begin knocking nuclear heads together in 2016. Like today’s colliders, it will use magnetic fields to smash beams of lighter elements into heavier target elements.

But to create new superheavies, SHE-Factory and other facilities are exploring new, more powerful beams and state-of-the-art particle detectors. From the start, SHE-Factory will unleash beams with 20 times the intensity of today’s best accelerators. The facility will also rely on new ultrasensitive instruments capable of spotting easily missed particles that continuously check data for superheavy element generation for months on end. Patience is key in the superheavy world because the vast majority of collisions in the reactor produce unwanted nuclei, and a vanishing few, if any, are superheavy elements. In 2012, when Japanese researchers successfully produced an atom of element 113, they had been running the experiment for 553 days over a period of more than nine years.

“The problem is when you’re looking for one atom, you may have to wait a long, long time”, says Loveland.

“SHE-Factory will allow experiments with a sensitivity of approximately 100 times higher than what we have today”, says Yuri Oganessian, scientific leader of the Flerov Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions at the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research in Dubna. “It will increase our chances of synthesizing 119, 120 and heavier elements.”

Will we ever reach the end of the Periodic Table?

Putting Neutrons to Work

For scientists to reach the island of stability, they’ll have to take advantage of neutrons as well as protons. These subatomic particles are bound together in the atomic nucleus by the strong force, one of the four fundamental forces of nature (along with gravity, electromagnetism and the weak force). More neutrons can promote stability by upping the strong-force interactions among the particles packed like sardines in a superheavy nucleus, which would otherwise repel each other.

“We are not yet to the center of the island of stability because we are too neutron-deficient”, says Shaughnessy. “But by adding neutrons into the nucleus, it might be possible to increase their lifetimes.”

Boosting neutron numbers will be the purview of Michigan’s $730 million Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB), which broke ground last March. FRIB will unleash neutron-rich beams at both conventional and unconventional elemental targets, making longer-lasting, neutron-loaded superheavies. FRIB’s beams will consist of large, yet common, atoms, like uranium-238, accelerated to half the speed of light. The targets in this case are smaller atoms, which shatter the larger particles upon collision. The resulting atomic shards will be carefully separated on the fly, using electromagnetic fields and other tricks to corral and store the radioactive, neutron-dense isotopes of interest that emerge from the collision. After it opens in 2022, FRIB should also spawn about 1,000 new isotopes and useful quantities of 3,500 known isotopes - which together make up 80 percent of all the isotopes thought possible between hydrogen and uranium.

“If scientists want an isotope, FRIB would be a good place to get it”, says Brad Sherrill, chief scientist at FRIB.

Among the most desired isotopes will be those of elements heavier than iron, including gold and silver. Theory holds that supernovas, the explosive deaths of giant stars, forge these heavy elements. Yet our finest supercomputer models of supernovas fail to produce the right mix of gold, silver and numerous other familiar metals.

“The elements in people’s jewelry? We don’t know where those came from”, says Sherrill.

FRIB will produce the short-lived precursors to such elements in quantity, and the results could solve that astrophysical mystery. More down to Earth, FRIB could also unveil new radioactive isotopes for zapping cancer. These isotopes could have chemistries that favor binding to delivery agents, thus packing potent, tumor-directed punches. Another benefit could be helping scientists at work on innovative nuclear power plants better understand the exotic new neutron-laden materials they might be working with, resulting in more efficient and less wasteful reactors.”

Overall, the coming crop of new superheavy elements and novel isotopes looks set to revamp our understanding of nature at the atomic level.

“In nuclear physics, there are many frontiers”, says Sherrill. “This is a story where we don’t know the ending.”

Discover Magazine / Wikipedia / Chemistry World / Smithsonian / Quora / Science Direct / Will we ever reach the end of the Periodic Table? (YouTube) video

NAVSPEAK aka U.S. Navy Slang - U.S. Navy

NAVSPEAK aka U.S. Navy Slang

PD-8: Fictitious valve requested to be found by junior sailor in order for an engineering qualification to be signed off. Valves are named with the initials of the system they belong to, ie Seawater valve 1 is SW-1. PD-8 is actually a chemical additive used in the evaporator to aid distillation of fresh water. As opposed to other in-joke shipboard goose chases, this one can go one for weeks while the nub spends his free time poking around the distillation plant.

Peanut Butter Shot: A painful shot normally given in the back of the hip or gluteus maximus.

Pecker-Checker: The Hospital Corpsman.

Pencil whip:

1) Filling out a form with mostly imaginary data or fluff.

2) Editing a poorly worded memo or document for clarity.

Penis Anus: Puget Sound Naval Shipyard (PSNS).

Penis Machinist: The Hospital Corpsman.


Just for MARINES - The Few. The Proud.

Just for you MARINE

PCP: Physical Conditioning Program, exercise regimen for Marines failing to meet the minimum physical requirements; also Physical Conditioning Platoon, for the unit where a physically unfit recruit is sent prior to recruit training, nicknamed Pork Chop Platoon.

PCS: Permanent Change of Station, transfer to another post, station, base, or installation.

PFC: Private First Class.

PFT: Physical Fitness Test, a semiannual test measuring strength, agility, and endurance by scoring performance in pull-ups (flexed-arm hang for females), abdominal crunches, and a 3-mile run.

PRT: Physical Readiness Test, an annual test conducted in utilities, with rifle and web gear. consisted of a rope climb, step-ups, fireman's carry, fire & maneuver course and a 3-mile run.


Naval Aviation Squadron Nicknames

Naval Aviation Squadron Nicknames

HT-28 Helicopter Training (HT) Squadron TWENTY EIGHT - nicknamed the “Hellions”

United States Navy Naval Air Station - United States Navy Helicopter Training Squadron, Naval Air Station Whiting Field Milton, Florida / Marine Corps and U. S. Coast Guard Student Naval Aviators / Lineage: HT-28: November 1, 2006 - present.

Where Did That Saying Come From

Where Did That Saying Come From?

Where Did That Saying Come From? “Seek and you shall find”

Seek and you shall find:

Meaning: The proverbial saying 'Seek and you shall find' means, in the Biblical sense, 'come to God and your prayers will be answered. In a wider literal sense it just means 'effort will be rewarded'.

History: 'Seek and you shall find' or, as it is usually written in old texts, 'seek and ye shall find' is from the Bible, Matthew 7:7-8.The King James Version of the text is:

“Ask, and it shall be given you; seek, and ye shall find; knock, and it shall be opened unto you:”

“For every one that asketh receiveth; and he that seeketh findeth; and to him that knocketh it shall be opened.”

Ask, seek, knock. Notice the three different senses being considered here.

Asking is verbal; Christians are to use their mouths and petition God for their needs and desires.

Seek with your mind - this is more than asking; it is a setting of priorities and a focusing of the heart.

Although asking and seeking are of great importance, they would be incomplete without knocking.

To knock involves physical movement, in which one takes action.

Phrases.org UK

Science & Technology

Science & Technology

Science & Technology

Mystery at Mars pole explainedQubits made from strontium and calcium ions can be precisely controlled by technology that already existsMountain vegetation dries out Alpine water fluxesPollination is better in cities than in the countryside Phys.org / MedicalXpress / TechXplore

Video: How Myst’s designers stuffed an entire universe onto a single CD-ROMThe tools and tricks that let Ars Technica function without a physical officeResearchers track fishing fleets by putting radar sensors on birdsLondon to deploy live facial recognition to find wanted faces in a crowd ARS Technica

Bizarre News (we couldn’t make up stuff this good – real news story)

Bizarre News (we couldn’t make up stuff this good - real news story)

Squid brains approach that of dogs

Squid brains approach that of dogs

Source: University of Queensland

Summary: We are closer to understanding the incredible ability of squid to instantly camouflage themselves. Researchers have completed the first MRI-based mapping of the squid brain in 50 years to develop an atlas of neural connections.

Dr Wen-Sung Chung and Professor Justin Marshall, from UQ's Queensland Brain Institute, completed the first MRI-based mapping of the squid brain in 50 years to develop an atlas of neural connections.

“This the first time modern technology has been used to explore the brain of this amazing animal, and we proposed 145 new connections and pathways, more than 60 per cent of which are linked to the vision and motor systems”, Dr Chung said.

“The modern cephalopods, a group including octopus, cuttlefish and squid, have famously complex brains, approaching that of a dog and surpassing mice and rats, at least in neuronal number.”

“For example, some cephalopods have more than 500 million neurons, compared to 200 million for a rat and 20,000 for a normal mollusc.”

Squid brains approach that of dogs

Some examples of complex cephalopod behaviour include the ability to camouflage themselves despite being colourblind, count, recognise patterns, problem solve and communicate using a variety of signals.

“We can see that a lot of neural circuits are dedicated to camouflage and visual communication. Giving the squid a unique ability to evade predators, hunt and conspecific communicate with dynamic colour changes.”

Dr Chung said the study also supported emerging hypotheses on convergent evolution - when organisms independently evolve similar traits - of cephalopod nervous systems with parts of the vertebrate central nervous system.

“The similarity with the better-studied vertebrate nervous system allows us to make new predictions about the cephalopod nervous system at the behavioural level”, he said.

“For example, this study proposes several new networks of neurons in charge of visually-guided behaviours such as locomotion and countershading camouflage - when squid display different colours on the top and bottom of their bodies to blend into the background whether they are being viewed from above or below.”

The team's ongoing project involves understanding why different cephalopod species have evolved different subdivisions of the brain.

“Our findings will hopefully provide evidence to help us understand why these fascinating creatures display such diverse behaviour and very different interactions.”

Science Daily (01/29/2020) video

© CEASAR CHOPPY by cartoonist Marty Gavin - archives Ceasar Choppy's Navy! “© CEASAR CHOPPY” by Marty Gavin


“Wishin' And Hopin'” - Dusty Springfield 1963

“Wishin' And Hopin'” - Dusty Springfield
Album: The Very Best of Dusty Springfield
Released 1963 video

Wishin' And Hopin'video was written by Burt Bacharach and Hal David for Dionne Warwick, who released it as the B-side video of her 1963 single “This Empty Placevideo. Springfield recorded it later in 1963, and it became her first American Top-10. Bacharach commented to Record Collector magazine:

“I remember talking Dusty into putting the record out. Dusty was always very insecure, about what to release, about her voice. What a great singer. Powerful. She was a great girl. 'Wishing And Hopin'' was great and it was a big hit.”

Wishin' And Hopin'video is a bit subservient, as the singer is trying very hard to please her man. Responding to criticism that the song was sexist, Springfield said that she never saw the song in those terms and was amazed that anyone would think that way.

In the UK this was a #13 hit video for The Merseybeats in 1964.

Dusty Springfield, official website / Rock and Roll Hall of Fame / Billboard / All Music / Song Facts / Dusty Springfield Dusty Springfield Documentary; video

Image: “The Very Best of Dusty Springfield (album)” by Dusty Springfield



● How long does it take the moon to revolve around the Earth, to the nearest day?

Answer to Trivia

● Which 18-year-old married 26-year-old Anne Hathaway in November 1582?

Answer to Trivia

● Which historical figure passed away on April 18, 1955?

Answer to Trivia

● “What blues legend sings with U2 on the song “When Love Comes to Town”?

Answer to Trivia


A Test for People Who Know Everything

From the Jeopardy Archives Category - “NAME THE NOVEL” ($200)

“'If the picture was to alter, it was to alter. That was all...not one blossom of his loveliness would ever fade.'”

Answer for People Who Do Not Know Everything, or Want to Verify Their Answer Gutenberg.org

From the Jeopardy Archives Category - “NAME THE NOVEL” ($400)

“'Oh, fiddle-dee-dee! But look at Mrs. Merriwether. She's selling pies to Yankees and that's worse than running a sawmill.'”

Answer for People Who Do Not Know Everything, or Want to Verify Their Answer Gutenberg.org

From the Jeopardy Archives Category - “NAME THE NOVEL” ($600)

“'Lecter shut Boyle up with a shot of the mace and as he wheezed...it was easy, with five judicious blows, to beat him to death.'”

Answer for People Who Do Not Know Everything, or Want to Verify Their Answer Wikipedia.org

From the Jeopardy Archives Category - “NAME THE NOVEL” ($800)

“'He must be a very nice animal,' observed the Mole, as he got into the boat and took the sculls".'”

Answer for People Who Do Not Know Everything, or Want to Verify Their Answer Gutenberg.org

From the Jeopardy Archives Category - “NAME THE NOVEL” ($1,000)

“'Bog murder you, you vonny stinking bratchnies. Where are the others? Where are my stinking traitorous droogs?'”

Answer for People Who Do Not Know Everything, or Want to Verify Their Answer Gutenberg.org

Answer to Last Week's Test

From the Jeopardy Archives Category - “PRO FOOTBALL HALL OF FAMERS BY TEAM” ($200)

“Franco Harris & Terry Bradshaw.”

● Answer: the Pittsburgh Steelers. NFL

From the Jeopardy Archives Category - “PRO FOOTBALL HALL OF FAMERS BY TEAM” ($400)


“Terrell Davis & John Elway.”

● Answer: the Denver Broncos. NFL

From the Jeopardy Archives Category - “PRO FOOTBALL HALL OF FAMERS BY TEAM” ($600)

“Michael Strahan & Frank Gifford.”

● Answer: the New York Giants. NFL

From the Jeopardy Archives Category - “PRO FOOTBALL HALL OF FAMERS BY TEAM” ($800)

“Brian Urlacher & Walter Payton.”

● Answer: the Chicago Bears. NFL

From the Jeopardy Archives Category - “PRO FOOTBALL HALL OF FAMERS BY TEAM” ($1,000)

“Randy White & Emmitt Smith.”

● Answer: the Dallas Cowboys. NFL

Joke of the Day

Joke of the Day

Joke of the Day


How does an attorney sleep? Well, first he lies on one side, then he lies on the other.

You’ve heard that one, along with a million other lawyer jokes that people have sprung on you from the moment you first announced you were going to school to be a paralegal. Some of them probably even get told around the law office. Even lawyers like to laugh and there are a lot of aspects of legal practice that are ripe for a little deadpan humor.


Joke of the Day

“Liar Liar”

As a potential juror in an assault-and-battery case, A man was sitting in a courtroom, answering questions from both sides.

The assistant district attorney asked such questions as: “Had you ever been mugged? Did ypu know the victim or the defendant?”

The defense attorney took a different approach, however. “I see you are a teacher”, he said. “What do you teach?”

“English and theater”, The man responded.

“Then I guess I better watch my grammar”, the defense attorney quipped.

“No”, the man shot back. “You better watch your acting.”

“When the laughter in the courtroom died down, the man was excused from the case.