Old Sailors' Almanac

THIS WEEK IN HISTORY

Week 40, 2020

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USS Nautilus - world’s first nuclear submarine is commissioned on September 30, 1954

USS Nautilus - world’s first nuclear submarine is commissioned on September 30, 1954

USS Nautilus - world’s first nuclear submarine is commissioned: The Nautilus was constructed under the direction of U.S. Navy Captain Hyman G. Rickover, a brilliant Russian-born engineer who joined the U.S. atomic program in 1946. In 1947, he was put in charge of the navy’s nuclear-propulsion program and began work on an atomic submarine. Regarded as a fanatic by his detractors, Rickover succeeded in developing and delivering the world’s first nuclear submarine years ahead of schedule. In 1952, the Nautilus‘ keel was laid by President Harry S. Truman, and on January 21, 1954, first lady Mamie Eisenhower broke a bottle of champagne across its bow as it was launched into the Thames River at Groton, Connecticut. Commissioned on September 30, 1954, it first ran under nuclear power on the morning of January 17, 1955.

USS Nautilus - world’s first nuclear submarine is commissioned on September 30, 1954

Much larger than the diesel-electric submarines that preceded it, the Nautilus stretched 319 feet and displaced 3,180 tons. It could remain submerged for almost unlimited periods because its atomic engine needed no air and only a very small quantity of nuclear fuel. The uranium-powered nuclear reactor produced steam that drove propulsion turbines, allowing the Nautilus to travel underwater at speeds in excess of 20 knots.

In its early years of service, the USS Nautilus broke numerous submarine travel records and in August 1958 accomplished the first voyage under the geographic North Pole. After a career spanning 25 years and almost 500,000 miles steamed, the Nautilus was decommissioned on March 3, 1980. Designated a National Historic Landmark in 1982, the world’s first nuclear submarine went on exhibit in 1986 as the Historic Ship Nautilus at the Submarine Force Museum in Groton, Connecticut.

History Channel / Wikipedia / Naval History and Heritage Command.mil / NAVY Live.DOD Live.mil / Historic Naval Ships Association.org / USS Nautilus - world’s first nuclear submarine is commissioned on September 30, 1954 (YouTube) video

Boeing rolls out first 747 Jumbo Jet on September 30, 1968

Boeing rolls out first 747 Jumbo Jet on September 30, 1968

On September 30, 1968, Boeing rolls out the first 747 "Jumbo Jet" in Everett, Washington. The aircraft, originally designed to haul both cargo and passengers for Pan Am Airways, was more than twice the size of the Boeing 707. In order to assemble the flying behemoth, Boeing built the world's largest structure by volume, enclosing 291 million cubic feet, at Paine Field in Everett.

Early Planning

Plans for the Boeing 747 were developed in the early 1960s, after Juan Trippe (1899-1981), president of Pan American World Airways, expressed interest in a plane that was larger than either the Boeing 707 or the Douglas DC-8, the two aircraft that had ushered in the Jet Age.

Jack Steiner (1917-2003), Boeing's vice-president of product development oversaw the 747 in its planning stages, and Boeing CEO Bill Allen (1900-1985) chose Mal Stamper (1925-2005) as general manger when the project went into full design. Joe Sutter (1921-2016) was named chief engineer.

In 1966, Pan Am signed a $550 million contract for 25 planes, deliverable by the end of 1969. By Boeing standards, this was a very short time frame to complete the project, especially since design was not yet complete, and the production plant had yet to be built. In effect, Boeing bet the company that the project would succeed.

Boeing rolls out first 747 Jumbo Jet on September 30, 1968

A Big Jet Needs a Big Building

Boeing initially considered building the 747 outside of Washington state, but eventually settled on 780 acres of land near Everett. Located next to Paine Field, the property was hilly and heavily wooded. More than four million cubic yards of dirt had to be removed to make way for the world's largest building under a single roof.

Construction moved quickly, but barely fast enough to keep up with the schedule. Work began on the 747 mockup before the walls of the mockup building were complete. Workers on the assembly line had to wear heavy clothing during the winter, because the building was not yet been heated.

Original plans for the 747 included a double-deck design, but this concept was nixed due to concerns about emergency evacuations. Instead, the plane was given a wide-body design, the first in the world. The plane's distinctive hump behind the cockpit came about due to aerodynamic streamlining, but was used to house a passenger lounge at the suggestion of Juan Trippe.

More Orders Come In

While work continued on the 747, Boeing gathered up orders from other airlines. Most airline executive visited the production plant while making their decision, and came away in awe. When Pat Patterson (1899-1980), president of United Airlines, entered the mockup building, the first words out of his mouth were, “Jesus Christ!” (Serling, Legend and Legacy).

By the time the 747 was ready for its unveiling, orders had been placed from 26 airlines for the new jet. Representatives from each of these airlines gathered with other invited guests - as well as the press - on September 30, 1968, for the plane's first public appearance.

Boeing rolls out first 747 Jumbo Jet on September 30, 1968

The 747 Debuts

That morning, a replica of the B& W -- Boeing's first airplane -- flew over Paine Field, followed by a 707, a 727, and a 737. The crowd of attendees gathered in front of the massive hangar doors of the production plant. The doors opened slowly, and a tractor towed the 747 out into the bright sunlight.

Unlike previous Boeing airliners, which were painted canary yellow and brown, the 747 was painted white and red, with blue lettering. As the plane came into view, the audience gasped at its size and broke into thunderous applause. At 231 feet in length, with a 196-foot wingspan, the 747 was far larger than any plane most of them had seen before.

United States Secretary of Commerce C. R. Smith (1899-1990) was the principal speaker, and noted that the 747 “will provide a standard of comfort and convenience never equaled before”. (The Seattle Times, September 30, 1968) He noted that over $1.5 billion worth of contracts had already been signed for the new plane, and that more were on the way.

Bill Allen noted that the 747 program was one of the largest nongovernmental projects in United States history. Boeing President T. A. Wilson (1921-1999) spoke next and introduced Governor Dan Evans (b. 1925), and Senators Warren Magnuson (1905-1989) and Henry M. Jackson (1912-1983). Finally, Mal Stamper thanked all of the Boeing employees who worked on the project, but noted that the plane still had to go through flight test and government certification.

The 747 was christened by 26 flight attendants, then called stewardesses, one each from the 26 airlines that had already placed orders. As they smashed their 26 bottles of champagne against the jumbo jet, a cheer rang out from the crowd.

History Link.orgl / Wikipedia / Encyclopedia Britannica / Boeing / Forbes / BBC / Museum of Flight.org / National Air and Space Museum - Smithsonian Institution / Boeing rolls out first 747 Jumbo Jet on September 30, 1968 (YouTube) video

“This Day in History”

This Day in History September 30

• 1882 Thomas Edison's first commercial hydroelectric power plant (later known as Appleton Edison Light Company) begins operation.

• 1888 Jack the Ripper kills his third and fourth victims, Elizabeth Stride and Catherine Eddowes.

• 1915 World War I: Radoje Ljutovac becomes the first soldier in history to shoot down an enemy aircraft with ground-to-air fire.

• 1922 University of Alabama opens the American football season with a 110–0 victory over the Marion Military Institute, which still stands as Alabama's record for largest margin of victory and as their only 100 point game.

• 1927 Babe Ruth becomes the first baseball player to hit 60 home runs in a season.

• 1935 Hoover Dam astride the border between the U.S. states of Arizona and Nevada, is dedicated.

• 1938 Munich Agreement: Britain, France, Germany and Italy sign the Munich Agreement, whereby Germany annexes the Sudetenland region of Czechoslovakia.

• 1938 League of Nations: unanimously outlaws “intentional bombings of civilian populations”.

• 1939 First televised American football game.

• 1943 World War II: Babi Yar massacre comes to an end.

• 1943 United States Merchant Marine Academy is dedicated by President Roosevelt.

• 1947 World Series: The first to be televised, to include an African-American player.


Understanding Military Terminology: At the Marine Corps Museum: Norman Rockwell's “The War Hero”

Understanding Military Terminology

Patient Movement

(DOD) The act or process of moving a sick, injured, wounded, or other person to obtain medical and/or dental care or treatment. Functions include medical regulating, patient evacuation, and en route medical care.

See also Patient Movement Items; Patient Movement Requirements Center.

Joint Publications (JP 4-02) Joint Health Services

Patient Movement Items

The medical equipment and supplies required to support patients during aeromedical evacuation, which is part of a standardized list of approved safe-to-fly equipment.

See also PMIs.

Joint Publications (JP 4-02) Joint Health Services

Patient Novement Policy

Command decision establishing the maximum number of days that patients may be held within the command for treatment.

See also Evacuation.

Joint Publications (JP 4-02) Joint Health Services

Patient Movement Requirements Center

1. A joint activity that coordinates patient movement by functionally merging of joint medical regulating processes, Services’ medical regulating processes, and patient movement evacuation requirements planning (transport to bed plan)

2. Term used to represent any theater, joint or the Global Patient Movement Requirements Center function.

See also PMRC.

Joint Publications (JP 4-02) Joint Health Services


“The Odyssey”

The Old Salt’s Corner

“The Odyssey”

Book XXI

Minerva now put it in Penelope's mind to make the suitors try their skill with the bow and with the iron axes, in contest among themselves, as a means of bringing about their destruction. She went upstairs and got the store room key, which was made of bronze and had a handle of ivory; she then went with her maidens into the store room at the end of the house, where her husband's treasures of gold, bronze, and wrought iron were kept, and where was also his bow, and the quiver full of deadly arrows that had been given him by a friend whom he had met in Lacedaemon- Iphitus the son of Eurytus. The two fell in with one another in Messene at the house of Ortilochus, where Ulysses was staying in order to recover a debt that was owing from the whole people; for the Messenians had carried off three hundred sheep from Ithaca, and had sailed away with them and with their shepherds. In quest of these Ulysses took a long journey while still quite young, for his father and the other chieftains sent him on a mission to recover them. Iphitus had gone there also to try and get back twelve brood mares that he had lost, and the mule foals that were running with them. These mares were the death of him in the end, for when he went to the house of Jove's son, mighty Hercules, who performed such prodigies of valour, Hercules to his shame killed him, though he was his guest, for he feared not heaven's vengeance, nor yet respected his own table which he had set before Iphitus, but killed him in spite of everything, and kept the mares himself. It was when claiming these that Iphitus met Ulysses, and gave him the bow which mighty Eurytus had been used to carry, and which on his death had been left by him to his son. Ulysses gave him in return a sword and a spear, and this was the beginning of a fast friendship, although they never visited at one another's houses, for Jove's son Hercules killed Iphitus ere they could do so. This bow, then, given him by Iphitus, had not been taken with him by Ulysses when he sailed for Troy; he had used it so long as he had been at home, but had left it behind as having been a keepsake from a valued friend.

Penelope presently reached the oak threshold of the store room; the carpenter had planed this duly, and had drawn a line on it so as to get it quite straight; he had then set the door posts into it and hung the doors. She loosed the strap from the handle of the door, put in the key, and drove it straight home to shoot back the bolts that held the doors; these flew open with a noise like a bull bellowing in a meadow, and Penelope stepped upon the raised platform, where the chests stood in which the fair linen and clothes were laid by along with fragrant herbs: reaching thence, she took down the bow with its bow case from the peg on which it hung. She sat down with it on her knees, weeping bitterly as she took the bow out of its case, and when her tears had relieved her, she went to the cloister where the suitors were, carrying the bow and the quiver, with the many deadly arrows that were inside it. Along with her came her maidens, bearing a chest that contained much iron and bronze which her husband had won as prizes. When she reached the suitors, she stood by one of the bearing-posts supporting the roof of the cloister, holding a veil before her face, and with a maid on either side of her. Then she said:

“Listen to me you suitors, who persist in abusing the hospitality of this house because its owner has been long absent, and without other pretext than that you want to marry me; this, then, being the prize that you are contending for, I will bring out the mighty bow of Ulysses, and whomsoever of you shall string it most easily and send his arrow through each one of twelve axes, him will I follow and quit this house of my lawful husband, so goodly, and so abounding in wealth. But even so I doubt not that I shall remember it in my dreams.”

As she spoke, she told Eumaeus to set the bow and the pieces of iron before the suitors, and Eumaeus wept as he took them to do as she had bidden him. Hard by, the stockman wept also when he saw his master's bow, but Antinous scolded them. “You country louts”, said he, “silly simpletons; why should you add to the sorrows of your mistress by crying in this way? She has enough to grieve her in the loss of her husband; sit still, therefore, and eat your dinners in silence, or go outside if you want to cry, and leave the bow behind you. We suitors shall have to contend for it with might and main, for we shall find it no light matter to string such a bow as this is. There is not a man of us all who is such another as Ulysses; for I have seen him and remember him, though I was then only a child.”

“The Odyssey” - Book XXI continued ...

~ Homer

Written 800 B.C.E

Translated by Samuel Butler

“The Odyssey” - Table Of Contents


“I’m Just Sayin’”

“I’m Just Sayin”

“Whenever people agree with me I always feel I must be wrong.”

“A dreamer is one who can only find his way by moonlight,

and his punishment is that he sees the dawn before the rest of the world.”

“Man is least himself when he talks in his own person.

Give him a mask,

and he will tell you the truth.”

~ Oscar Wilde


“Thought for the Day”

“Thought for the Day”

“I started at the top and worked my way down.”

“Race hate isn't human nature;

race hate is the abandonment of human nature.”

“race hate is the abandonment of human nature.

Unless there are three other people.”

“I hate television.

I hate it as much as peanuts.

But I can't stop eating peanuts.”

~ Orson Welles


“What I Have Learned”

“What I Learned”

“What the large print giveth,

the small print taketh away.”

“Never try to teach a pig to think.

It doesn’t work and it annoys the pig.”

~ Anonymous


Why Don’t Bugs Eat People’s Bones? Mr. Answer Man Please Tell Us: Why Don’t Bugs Eat People’s Bones?

I the book, “Will My Cat Eat My Eyeballs” Big Questions from Tiny Mortals About Death, answers real questions received about death, dead bodies, and decomposition - why the creatures that consider skin and organs a tasty snack just don't feel the same way about our skeletons.

It’s a lovely summer day and you’re having lunch in the park. You bite into a fried chicken wing, munching on the crispy skin and juicy flesh. Is your next move cracking into the bones, crunching them like the giant in “Jack and the Beanstalk”?

If you yourself wouldn’t eat a pile of animal bones, why would you expect a beetle to show up and eat your bones? We expect too much from necrophages, the unsung heroes of the natural world. They are the death eaters, the organisms that fuel up by consuming dead and rotting things - and bless their hearts! Imagine, for a moment, what the world would look like without the assistance of the consumers of dead flesh. Corpses and carcasses everywhere. That road kill? It’s not going anywhere without the help of necrophages.

Why Don’t Bugs Eat People’s Bones?

Necrophages do such a good job getting rid of dead things that we expect them to perform miracles. It’s like how if you do too good a job of cleaning your room, then your mom will expect perfection every time. Better to not set expectations so high. It’s just not worth the risk.

The corpse-nosher ranks are filled with diverse species. You have vultures, swooping down for a roadside snack. You have blowflies, which can smell death from up to 10 miles away. You have carrion beetles, which devour dried muscle. A dead human body is a wonderland of ecological niches, offering a wide range of homes and snacks for those inclined to eat. There are plenty of seats at death’s dinner table.

Remember the dermestid beetle? The helpful cuties we’d enlist to clean your parents’ skulls? Their job is to eat all the flesh off without damaging the bone. Let’s be clear: we don’t want them to eat the bone. Especially because other methods of flesh removal (like harsh chemicals) will not only hurt the bones, but might damage certain types of evidence, like marks on bones, which could be useful in criminal investigations. That’s why you bring in a colony of thousands of dermestids to do the dirty work. Plus, while you were over here complaining that they don’t eat enough bones, the beetles were also eating skin, hair, and feathers!

Why Don’t Bugs Eat People’s Bones?

Why Don’t Bugs Eat People’s Bones? The simple answer is that eating bones is hard work. Not only that, but bones are not nutritionally useful to insects. Bones are mostly made of calcium, something insects just don’t need a lot of. Since they don’t need much calcium, insects like dermestids haven’t evolved to consume it or desire it. They’re about as interested in eating bones as you are.

But, here’s a dramatic twist: just because these beetles don’t usually eat bone doesn’t mean they won’t. It’s a cost-reward thing. Bones are a frustrating meal, but a meal is a meal. Peter Coffey, an agriculture educator at the University of Maryland, told me how he learned this firsthand when he used Dermestes maculatus to clean the skeleton of a stillborn lamb. Adult sheep bones are robust, “but in fetuses and newborns there are several places where fusion is not yet complete.” When he removed the lamb bones after the beetles finished cleaning them, “I noticed small round holes, about the diameter of a large larva.” It turns out beetles will go after less dense, delicate bones (like those of the stillborn lamb), but, Peter says, “there has to be a perfect storm of good environmental conditions and poor food availability before they’ll resort to bone, which would explain why it’s not more commonly observed.”

So, while dermestids and other flesh-eating bugs do not usually eat bone, if they get hungry enough, they will. Humans behave the same way. When Paris was under siege in the late 16th century, the city was starving. When people inside the city ran out of cats and dogs and rats to eat, they began disinterring bodies from the mass graves in the cemetery. They took the bones and ground them into flour to make what became known as Madame de Montpensier’s bread. Bone appetit! (Actually, maybe don’t bone appetit, as many who ate the bone bread died themselves.)

It seems like no creature out there wants to eat bone, really prefers bone. But wait, I haven’t introduced you to Osedax, or the bone worm. (I mean, it’s right there in the name, people. Osedax means “bone eater” or “bone devourer” in Latin.) Bone worms start as tiny larvae, floating out in the vast blackness of the deep ocean. Suddenly, emerging from the void above is a big ol’ dead creature, like a whale or an elephant seal. The bone worm attaches, and the feast begins. To be fair, even Osedax don’t really devour the minerals in the bone. Instead, they burrow into the bone searching for collagen and lipids to eat. After the whale is gone, the worms die, but not before they release enough larvae to travel the currents waiting for another carcass to comes along.

Bone worms aren’t picky. You could throw a cow, or your dad (don’t do that), overboard and they’d eat those bones, too. There is strong evidence that bone worms have been eating giant marine reptiles since the time of the dinosaurs. That means the whale eaters are older than whales themselves. Osedax are nature’s peak bone eaters, and they’re even sorta nice to look at, orangey-red floating tubes covering bones like a deep-sea shag carpet. Pretty amazing, given that scientist didn’t even know these creatures existed until 2002. Who knows what else is out there in the world, devouring bone?

Mental Floss / Wikipedia / Encyclopedia Britannica / National Geographic.org / Quora / Scientific American / Live Science / Sapiens.org / Why Don’t Bugs Eat People’s Bones? (YouTube) video


NAVSPEAK aka U.S. Navy Slang - U.S. Navy

NAVSPEAK aka U.S. Navy Slang

Periscope liberty (Submarine Service): Looking through the periscope to see the world outside after being underwater for a long time. Surface equivalent: “Eyeball Liberty”.

Permanent Help: Slang for a PH (Photographer's Mate) in a fighter squadron.

PFA: Physical Fitness Assessment: new name for PRT. Situps, pushups and a run/bike/swim/elliptical trainer.

PFM: “Pure Fucking Magic”, term applied to when things work, but one doesn't know how or why — but they work. Other usage: “PFM circuit” for electronics in depot level repair only equipment whose inner workings are not required to be known. See also “Black box” and “Transistor Theory”.

Phantom Shitter: A freaking weirdo that thinks it's funny to shit in the shower, or to take a shit in the shitter and not flush.

Phrog: CH-46 Sea Knight helo. Also referred to as the “Whistling Shitcan of Death” or a “Flying Anvil”.

Piece: Rifle, as used in manual-of-arms (rifle drill).

Wiktionary.org


Just for MARINES - The Few. The Proud.

Just for you MARINE

Phrog: Nickname for CH-46 Sea Knight.

Phone Watch: Duty where a Marine is responsible for answering phones when others are busy or unavailable (such as lunch hours); also the person filling the duty.

Wikipedia.org


Naval Aviation Squadron Nicknames

Naval Aviation Squadron Nicknames

HX-21 Air Test and Evaluation (HX) Squadron TWO ONE - nicknamed the “Blackjack”

United States Navy Naval Air Station - Air Test and Evaluation Squadron, Naval Air Station Patuxent River, Maryland on the Chesapeake Bay / Naval Air Warfare Center Aircraft Division (NAWC-AD), Naval Test Wing Atlantic (NTWL) / Lineage:Naval Rotary Wing Aircraft Test Squadron: July 21, 1995 - May 1, 2002 / HS-21: May 1, 2002 - present.


Where Did That Saying Come From

Where Did That Saying Come From?

Where Did That Saying Come From? “Share and share alike”

Share and share alike:

Meaning: To 'share and share alike' is to give equal shares to all.

History: The expression was first known as 'share and share like', as in this example from Richard Edwards's comedy Damon and Pithias, 1566:

“Let vs into the Courte to parte the spoyle, share and share like.”

Daniel Defoe, appears to be the first to have used the 'share and share alike' version. That was is Robinson Crusoe, or as he called it The life and strange adventures of Robinson Crusoe, 1719:

“He declar'd he had reserv'd nothing from the Men, and went Share and Share alike with them in every Bit they eat.”

Phrases.org UK


Science & Technology

Science & Technology

Science & Technology

One single primitive turtle resisted mass extinction in the northern hemispherePast climate safe havens now most vulnerableFamily matters for world's second biggest fishFeature: Heisenberg limit gets a meaningful update Phys.org / MedicalXpress / TechXplore

Tracking the future of remote workplaces: Apps, communication, and liabilityVirus tricked into glowing reveals entryway to cellular victimSuccess kid’s mom won’t stand for Steve King’s “meme” adFlat surfaces surf past each other on the peak of a wave ARS Technica


Bizarre News (we couldn’t make up stuff this good – real news story)

Bizarre News (we couldn’t make up stuff this good - real news story)

Citizen science discovers a new form of the northern lights

Citizen science discovers a new form of the northern lights

Source: University of Helsinki

Summary: Working together with space researchers, amateur photographers have discovered a new auroral form. Named 'dunes' by the hobbyists, the phenomenon is believed to be caused by waves of oxygen atoms glowing due to a stream of particles released from the sun.

In the recently published study, the origins of the dunes were tracked to a wave guide formed within the mesosphere and its boundary, the mesopause. The study also posits that this new auroral form provides researchers with a novel way to investigate conditions in the upper atmosphere.

The study was published in the first issue of the journal AGU Advances.

An unknown fingerprint appears in the sky

Minna Palmroth, Professor of Computational Space Physics at the University of Helsinki, heads a research group developing the world's most accurate simulation of the near-Earth space and space weather that cause auroral emissions.

The sun releases a steady flow of charged particles, known as the solar wind. Reaching Earth's ionised upper atmosphere, the ionosphere, they create auroral emissions by exciting atmospheric oxygen and nitrogen atoms. The excitation state is released as auroral light.

In late 2018, Palmroth published a book entitled 'Revontulibongarin opas' ('A guide for aurora borealis watchers'). The book was born out of Palmroth's cooperation with Northern Lights enthusiasts and the answers she provided to questions about the physics of the phenomenon in the hobbyists' Facebook group.

Thousands of magnificent photographs of the Northern Lights taken by hobbyists were surveyed and categorised for the book. Each auroral form is like a fingerprint, typical only of a certain phenomenon in the auroral zone. During the classification, hobbyists pointed out that a certain auroral form did not fit into any of the pre-existing categories. Palmroth set aside these unusual forms for later consideration.

By an almost unbelievable coincidence, just days after the book was published, the hobbyists saw this unusual form again and immediately informed Palmroth. The form appeared as a green-tinged and even pattern of waves resembling a striped veil of clouds or dunes on a sandy beach.

“One of the most memorable moments of our research collaboration was when the phenomenon appeared at that specific time and we were able to examine it in real time”, says Northern Lights and astronomy hobbyist Matti Helin.

Citizen science discovers a new form of the northern lights

Waves newly revealed by the aurora

Investigations into the phenomenon were launched, with hobbyist observations and scientific methods coming together to explain the waves.

“It was like piecing together a puzzle or conducting detective work”, says Helin. “Every day we found new images and came up with new ideas. Eventually, we got to the bottom of it...”

The phenomenon was photographed at the same time in both Laitila and Ruovesi, southwest Finland, with the same detail observed in the auroral emission in both images. Maxime Grandin, a postdoctoral researcher in Palmroth's team, identified stars behind the emission and determined the azimuths and elevations of the stars with the help of the astronomy software program Stellarium. This made it possible to use the stars as points of reference when calculating the altitude and extent of the auroral phenomenon.

Grandin found that the auroral dunes occur at a relatively low altitude of 100 kilometres, in the upper parts of the mesosphere. The wavelength of the wave field was measured to be 45 kilometres.

A total of seven similar events - where a camera had recorded the same even pattern of waves - were further identified from the 'Taivaanvahti' ('Sky Watch') service maintained by the Finnish Amateur Astronomer Association, Ursa.

Unexplored region

The part of the auroral zone where Earth's electrically-neutral atmosphere meets the edge of space is an extremely challenging environment for satellites and other space-borne instruments. Palmroth says this is why it is one of the least studied places on our planet.

“Due to the difficulties in measuring the atmospheric phenomena occurring between 80 and 120 kilometres in altitude, we sometimes call this area 'the ignorosphere'",” she says.

The dunes were observed precisely in that particular region of the auroral zone. The observed phenomenon guided the researchers towards a middle ground between atmospheric research and space research, as the usual methodology of space physics could not explain it alone.

“The differences in brightness within the dune waves could be due to either waves in the precipitating particles coming from space, or in the underlying atmospheric oxygen atoms”, says Palmroth. “We ended up proposing that the dunes are a result of increased oxygen atom density.”

Next, the team had to determine how the variability in the density of the oxygen atoms caused by gravity waves in the atmosphere results in such an even and widespread field of waves. Normally at the altitude of study there are many different kinds of gravity waves travelling in different directions at different wavelengths, which is why they do not easily form the even wavefields exhibited by the dunes.

Citizen science discovers a new form of the northern lights

The Northern Lights illuminate a tidal bore

The study suggests that the phenomenon in question is a mesospheric bore, a rare and little-studied phenomenon that takes place in the mesosphere. The tidal bore phenomenon is a wave common to many rivers, where the tide travels up the river channel.

Various types of gravity wave are born in the atmosphere and then rise. In very rare cases, gravity waves can get filtered as they rise between the mesopause and an inversion layer that is intermittently formed below the mesopause. The inversion layer makes the filtered waves bend and enables them to travel long distances through the channel without attenuation.

When the oxygen atoms in the bore collide with the electrons precipitating down upon the atmosphere, they become excited. When releasing this excitation, they create the auroral light. This is why mesospheric bores - a phenomenon thus far considered a very challenging subject of research - can occasionally be seen with the naked eye.

Space researchers focus on the atmosphere

Prior to this discovery, mesospheric bores were not observed in the auroral zone, nor have they been investigated via auroral emissions.

“The auroral zone as a whole is usually discounted in studies focused on the bore, as auroral emissions impair the technique used to identify mesospheric bores", says Palmroth.”

Traditionally, researchers specialising in the atmosphere and space have largely investigated their topics of interest separate from each other. This is because there are only a handful of known mechanisms of interaction between the ionosphere bathing in the precipitating electrons, and the neutral atmosphere.

With the help of measuring devices operated by the Finnish Meteorological Institute, the dunes were found to occur simultaneously and in the same region where the electromagnetic energy originating in space is transferred to the ignorosphere.

“This could mean that the energy transmitted from space to the ionosphere may be linked with the creation of the inversion layer in the mesosphere”, says Palmroth. “In terms of physics, this would be an astounding discovery, as it would represent a new and previously unobserved mechanism of interaction between the ionosphere and the atmosphere.”

Science Daily (01/29/2020) video


© CEASAR CHOPPY by cartoonist Marty Gavin - archives Ceasar Choppy's Navy! “© CEASAR CHOPPY” by Marty Gavin

SONG FACTS

“You Don't Have To Say You Love Me” - Dusty Springfield 1966

“You Don't Have To Say You Love Me” - Dusty Springfield
Album: Dusty Springfield's Golden Hits
Released 1966 video

Originally, “You Don't Have To Say You Love Mevideo was Dusty Springfield's first single as a solo artist - she was previously a member of The Springfields with her brother Tom. That group had five Top 10 hits in the UK and one in the U.S. (“Silver Threads and Golden Needlesvideo) before Dusty's departure.

In the book 1000 UK #1 Hits by Jon Kutner and Spencer Leigh, Simon Napier-Bell is quoted as saying:

“Vicki and I used to eat together, and she told me that Dusty wanted a lyric for this song. We went back to her flat and started working on it. We wanted to go to a trendy disco so we had about an hour to write it. We wrote the chorus and then we wrote the verse in a taxi to wherever we were going. It was the first pop lyric I'd written, although I've always been interested in poetry and good literature. We'd no idea what the English lyric said. That seemed to be irrelevant and besides, it is much easier to write a new lyric completely.”

Springfield didn't read much into the lyrics of her previous hits “Wishin' And Hopin'video" and “I Only Want to Be With Youvideo, where she sang from the perspective of a woman who was perhaps a little over-devoted to her man. This song had a much more profound effect on the singer. She said that he cried when she first heard the song.

Other hit versions in the UK were:

Elvis Presley (1971 #9) video,

Guys And Dolls (1976 #5) video and

Denise Welch (1995 #23) video.

As part of a series of re-releases of Elvis songs in the UK in 2007, Presley's live version video re-entered the UK chart at #16.

This one didn't come easy for Springfield - it took her 47 takes to record.

Elvis Presley's version reached #11 in the U.S. in 1970. Maureen McGovern also recorded it video for her 1992 album Baby I'm Yours.

Dusty Springfield, official website / Rock and Roll Hall of Fame / Billboard / All Music / Song Facts / Dusty Springfield Dusty Springfield Documentary; video

Image: “ Dusty Springfield's Golden Hits (album)” by Dusty Springfield


Trivia

Trivia

● In the TV show “The Simpsons”, why did Bart and Homer have to work at the carnival?

Answer to Trivia

● What wealthy comic-book title character keeps his mansion tidy with the help of a robot maid, Irona?

Answer to Trivia

● “Who wrote a book entitled “The Adventures of Lord Iffy Boatrace”?

Answer to Trivia

● What kind of flower does saffron come from?

Answer to Trivia


Jeopardy

A Test for People Who Know Everything

From the Jeopardy Archives Category - “SAILING INTO HISTORY” ($200)

“This little lady that sailed with Columbus was originally named the Santa Clara.”

Answer for People Who Do Not Know Everything, or Want to Verify Their Answer History Channel

From the Jeopardy Archives Category - “SAILING INTO HISTORY” ($400)

“The 1915 sinking of this ocean liner heightened tensions between the U.S. and Germany.”

Answer for People Who Do Not Know Everything, or Want to Verify Their Answer History Channel

From the Jeopardy Archives Category - “SAILING INTO HISTORY” ($600)

“It's said to have gotten its famous nickname after British shot bounced off its wooden hull in 1812.”

Answer for People Who Do Not Know Everything, or Want to Verify Their Answer NAVY.mil

From the Jeopardy Archives Category - “SAILING INTO HISTORY” ($800)

“Tainted borscht led to a 1905 mutiny on this Russian battleship, an event made into a movie in 1925.”

Answer for People Who Do Not Know Everything, or Want to Verify Their Answer History Channel

From the Jeopardy Archives Category - “SAILING INTO HISTORY” ($1,000)

“In 1717 Blackbeard converted a captured French slave ship and named it this late queen's 'Revenge'.”

Answer for People Who Do Not Know Everything, or Want to Verify Their Answer Qaronline.org


Answer to Last Week's Test

From the Jeopardy Archives Category - “NAME THE NOVEL” ($200)

“'If the picture was to alter, it was to alter. That was all...not one blossom of his loveliness would ever fade.'”

● Answer: The Picture of Dorian Gray. Gutenberg.org

From the Jeopardy Archives Category - “NAME THE NOVEL” ($400)

'

“'Oh, fiddle-dee-dee! But look at Mrs. Merriwether. She's selling pies to Yankees and that's worse than running a sawmill.'”

● Answer: Gone With the Wind. Gutenberg.org

From the Jeopardy Archives Category - “NAME THE NOVEL” ($600)

“'Lecter shut Boyle up with a shot of the mace and as he wheezed...it was easy, with five judicious blows, to beat him to death.'”

● Answer: Silence of the Lambs. Wikipedia.org

From the Jeopardy Archives Category - “NAME THE NOVEL” ($800)

“'He must be a very nice animal,' observed the Mole, as he got into the boat and took the sculls".'”

● Answer: The Wind in the Willows. Gutenberg.org

From the Jeopardy Archives Category - “NAME THE NOVEL” ($1,000)

“'Bog murder you, you vonny stinking bratchnies. Where are the others? Where are my stinking traitorous droogs?'”

● Answer: Clockwork Orange. Gutenberg.org


Joke of the Day

Joke of the Day

Joke of the Day

“Paying Attention”

This is the best example for paying attention that I have ever heard.

First-year students at the Purdue Vet School were attending their first anatomy class with a real dead cow.

They all gathered around the surgery table with the body covered with a white sheet.

The professor started the class by telling them, “In Veterinary medicine it is necessary to have two important qualities as a doctor. The first is that you not be disgusted by anything involving the animal's body.”

For an example, the professor pulled back the sheet, stuck his finger in the butt of the cow, withdrew it, and stuck his finger in his mouth. “Go ahead and do the same thing”, he told his students.

The students freaked out, hesitated for several minutes, but eventually took turns sticking a finger in the butt of the dead cow and sucking on it.

When everyone finished, the Professor looked at them and said, “The second most important quality is observation. I stuck in my middle finger and sucked on my index finger. Now learn to pay attention. Life's tough but it's even tougher if you're stupid.”