Old Sailors' Almanac

THIS WEEK IN HISTORY

Week 37, 2020

Previous Week   September 07, 2020 - September 13, 2020  Next Week

Washington, D.C., the capital of the United States, is named after President George Washington on September 09, 1791

Washington, D.C., the capital of the United States, is named after President George Washington on September 09, 1791

Washington, D.C., the capital of the United States, is named after President George Washington: On this day in 1791, The capital of the United States was named after George Washington.

He was even accused of using the American War of Independence to replace the British king i.e. to rule the United States of America as a monarch.

George Washington was the first President of the United States, a general and a military leader who won the War of Independence.

Before Washington, D.C., became America’s capital in 1800, the Congress met in a number of different locations, including Baltimore, Trenton and New York City. After years of debate by the new nation’s leaders about the selection of a permanent seat of government, Congress passed the Residence Act in July 1790, which declared that the capital would be situated somewhere along the Potomac River and granted President George Washington the power to choose the final site. The president also was given the authority to appoint three commissioners to oversee the federal city’s development, and a deadline of December 1800 was established for the completion of a legislative hall for Congress and residence for the chief executive.

Washington, D.C., the capital of the United States, is named after President George Washington on September 09, 1791

In January 1791, George Washington announced his choice for the federal district: 100 square miles of land ceded by Maryland and Virginia (in 1846, the Virginia land was returned to the state, shrinking the district by a third). In September 1791, the commissioners named the federal city in honor of Washington and dubbed the district in which it was located the Territory of Columbia.

The name Columbia, derived from explorer Christopher Columbus, was used during the American Revolution era as a patriotic reference for the United States (In 1871, the Territory of Columbia officially was renamed District of Columbia.) Meanwhile, in the spring of 1791, the president hired French-born architect and engineer Pierre Charles L’Enfant to lay out the capital city. L’Enfant, who served in the Continental Army during the Revolutionary War, created a design that featured wide avenues and open spaces; however, he clashed with George Washington’s commissioners as well as local landowners and was forced to resign from the project after less than a year. L’Enfant’s design was revised by later planners.

Congress met in Washington for the first time in November 1800 (the man for whom the city was named had died in December of the previous year), and in February 1801 the District of Columbia, which at the time also included the cities of Alexandria and Georgetown, was placed under the control of Congress.

Washington, D.C., the capital of the United States, is named after President George Washington on September 09, 1791

When the leaders of the new nation were deciding about the capital of the newly independent state, Washington used his influence, and the town of Alexandria also became “part” of the capital. In fact, Washington’s residence was located there. He owned a house and a plantation (Mount Vernon).

The procedure was very interesting. The former capital was Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. The politicians didn’t want the capital to be part of any state, but part of the neutral territory. They decided the existing states would cede their territories, and a neutral district would be established (District of Columbia or D.C.).

Maryland and Virginia ceded exactly 100 square miles on both sides of the Potomac River. The new monumental city was built.

But slave owners in Virginia feared that the federal government would abolish slavery on their land. They asked the Virginian authorities to withdraw the grant and return the land to Virginia.

It is interesting to note that this was actually done. The state of Virginia took its part of the District of Columbia, so Washington, D.C. only owned the land which was donated by the state of Maryland. Therefore, the present-day District of Columbia does not have 100, but only 68.3 square miles.

It is interesting to note that only one U.S. state gave the whole of the envisioned territory to the capital – the state of Maryland.

The state was named after the Blessed Virgin Mary, and it was founded by Lord Baltimore, who was an English aristocrat and a Catholic.

History Channel / Wikipedia / Encyclopedia Britannica / D.C. History Center.org / University of Massachusetts Boston.edu / University of Virginia - Miller Center.org / Boundary Stones.org/ / Virginia Places.org / Washington, D.C., the capital of the United States, is named after President George Washington on September 09, 1791 (YouTube) video

“This Day in History”

This Day in History September 09

•    9 Battle of the Teutoburg Forest: Arminius alliance of six Germanic tribes ambushes and annihilates three Roman legions of Publius Quinctilius Varus.

•  339 Roman Empire is divided between the three Augusti: Constantine II, Constantius II and Constans succeed their father Constantine I as co-emperors.

• 1000 Viking Age: Battle of Svolder.

• 1543 Mary Stuart:, at nine months old, is crowned Queen of Scots.

• 1939 World War II: Invasion of Poland: Battle of Hel: begins the longest-defended pocket of Polish Army against German resistance.

• 1942 World War II: Lookout Air Raids: A Japanese floatplane drops incendiary bombs on Oregon.

• 1943 World War II: Operation Avalanche and Operation Slapstick: Allies land at Salerno and Taranto, Italy.

• 1944 World War II: Bulgarian coup d'état: The Fatherland Front takes power in Bulgaria through a military coup in the capital and armed rebellion in the country. A new pro-Soviet government is established.

• 1945 World War II: Second Sino-Japanese War: The Empire of Japan formally surrenders to China.

• 1947 First case of a computer bug being found: A moth lodges in a relay of a Harvard Mark II computer at Harvard University.

• 1956 Elvis Presley appears on The Ed Sullivan Show for the first time.


Understanding Military Terminology: At the Marine Corps Museum: Norman Rockwell's “The War Hero”

Understanding Military Terminology

Packup kit

(DOD) Service-provided maintenance gear sufficient for a short-term deployment, including spare parts and consumables most commonly needed by the deployed helicopter detachment. Supplies are sufficient for a short-term deployment but do not include all material needed for every maintenance task.

Also called PUK.

Joint Publications (JP 3-04) Joint Shipboard Helicopter and Tiltrotor Aircraft Operations

Parallel chains of command

In amphibious operations, a parallel system of command, responding to the interrelationship of participating forces, wherein corresponding commanders are established at each subordinate level of all components to facilitate coordinated planning for, and execution of, the amphibious operation.

Joint Publications (JP 3-02) Joint Doctrine for Amphibious Operations


“The Odyssey”

The Old Salt’s Corner

“The Odyssey”

Book XVIII

Now there came a certain common tramp who used to go begging all over the city of Ithaca, and was notorious as an incorrigible glutton and drunkard. This man had no strength nor stay in him, but he was a great hulking fellow to look at; his real name, the one his mother gave him, was Arnaeus, but the young men of the place called him Irus, because he used to run errands for any one who would send him. As soon as he came he began to insult Ulysses, and to try and drive him out of his own house.

“Be off, old man”, he cried, “from the doorway, or you shall be dragged out neck and heels. Do you not see that they are all giving me the wink, and wanting me to turn you out by force, only I do not like to do so? Get up then, and go of yourself, or we shall come to blows.”

Ulysses frowned on him and said, “My friend, I do you no manner of harm; people give you a great deal, but I am not jealous. There is room enough in this doorway for the pair of us, and you need not grudge me things that are not yours to give. You seem to be just such another tramp as myself, but perhaps the gods will give us better luck by and by. Do not, however, talk too much about fighting or you will incense me, and old though I am, I shall cover your mouth and chest with blood. I shall have more peace to-morrow if I do, for you will not come to the house of Ulysses any more.”

Irus was very angry and answered, “You filthy glutton, you run on trippingly like an old fish-fag. I have a good mind to lay both hands about you, and knock your teeth out of your head like so many boar's tusks. Get ready, therefore, and let these people here stand by and look on. You will never be able to fight one who is so much younger than yourself.”

“The Odyssey” - Book XVIII continued ...

~ Homer

Written 800 B.C.E

Translated by Samuel Butler

“The Odyssey” - Table Of Contents


“I’m Just Sayin’”

“I’m Just Sayin”

“The test of the morality of a society is what it does for its children.”

“We must learn to regard people less in the light of what they do or omit to do,

and more in the light of what they suffer.”

“We are not to simply bandage the wounds of victims beneath the wheels of injustice,

we are to drive a spoke into the wheel itself.”

~ Dietrich Bonhoeffer


“Thought for the Day”

“Thought for the Day”

“We are born princes and the civilizing process makes us frogs.”

“It is kindness to immediately refuse what you intend to deny.”

“He who lives in solitude may make his own laws.”

“What the mind doesn't understand,

Let a fool hold his tongue and he will pass for a sage.”

~ Publilius Syrus


“What I Have Learned”

“What I Learned”

“Adversity introduces a man to himself.”

“A bore is someone who, when you ask him how he is, tells you.”

“Summer: The time of year that children slam the door they left open all winter.”

~ Anonymous


The Fear of the Number 13 Mr. Answer Man Please Tell Us: The Fear of the Number 13

Just like walking under a ladder, crossing paths with a black cat or breaking a mirror, many people fear the 13th brings bad luck. Though it’s uncertain exactly when this particular tradition began, negative superstitions have swirled around the number 13 for centuries.

While Western cultures have historically associated the number 12 with completeness (there are 12 days of Christmas, 12 months of the year and astrological signs, 12 labors of Hercules, 12 gods of Olympus and 12 tribes of Israel, are a few examples), its successor 13 has a long history as a sign of bad luck.

The ancient Code of Hammurabi, for example, reportedly omitted a 13th law from its list of legal rules. Though this was probably a clerical error, superstitious people sometimes point to this as proof of 13’s longstanding negative associations.

The Fear of the Number 13

Fear of the number 13 has even earned a psychological term: triskaidekaphobia.

Researchers estimate that at least 10 percent of the U.S. population has a fear of the number 13, and each year the even more specific fear of Friday the 13, known as paraskevidekatriaphobia, results in financial losses in excess of $800 million annually, as people avoid marrying, traveling or in the most severe cases, even working. But what’s so unlucky about the number 13, and how did this numerical superstition get started?

An early myth surrounding the origin of the fear involved one of the world’s oldest legal documents, the Code of Hammurabi, which reportedly omitted a 13th law from its list of legal rules. In reality, the omission was no more than a clerical error made by one of the document’s earliest translators who failed to include a line of text - in fact, the code doesn’t numerically list its laws at all.

The Fear of the Number 13

Mathematicians and scientists, meanwhile, point to preeminence of the number 12, often considered a “perfect” number, in the ancient world. The ancient Sumerians developed numeral system based on the use of 12 that is still used for measuring time today; most calendars have 12 months; a single day is comprised of two 12-hour half days, etc. Following so closely on the heels of a “perfect” number, some argue, the poor 13 was sure to be found lacking and unusual.

This fear of the unknown would seem to play into two other popular theories for the number’s unlucky connotation, both of which revolve around the appearance of a 13th guest at two ancient events: In the Bible, Judas Iscariot, the 13th guest to arrive at the Last Supper, is the person who betrays Jesus. Meanwhile ancient Norse lore holds that evil and turmoil were first introduced in the world by the appearance of the treacherous and mischievous god Loki at a dinner party in Valhalla. He was the 13th guest, upsetting the balance of the 12 gods already in attendance.

History Channel / Wikipedia / Encyclopedia Britannica / Global Security.org / Quora / The Fear of the Number 13 (YouTube) video


NAVSPEAK aka U.S. Navy Slang - U.S. Navy

NAVSPEAK aka U.S. Navy Slang

Papa Chuck: The P-3C Orion patrol aircraft. Also called “Four fans of freedom”, a desirable platform for airedales who have no wish to spend any time whatsoever at sea.

Paper Assholes: Gummed Reinforcements (office supplies); Paper Ensigns.

P.A.P.E.R.C.L.I.P.: People Against People Ever Reenlisting Civilian Life Is Preferable. Term used to show dissatisfaction with enlistment or unity amongst a brotherhood of bitter and disaffected sailors, specifically submariners. Often symbolized by the wearing of a paperclip on the uniform in varying levels of prominence to indicate the sailor's level of disgruntlement. May also be burned into the skin. C.L.I.P. also used as Civilian Life Incentive Program.

Pass in Review: The ceremony of graduation from boot camp into Navy life. Pass in Review ceremonies are always held on a Friday, meaning that there is a Pass in Review held every week, except during federal holidays i.e. Christmas, New Year's Day, Easter, etc.

Wiktionary.org


Naval Aviation Squadron Nicknames

Naval Aviation Squadron Nicknames

HT-8 Helicopter Training (HT) Squadron EIGHT - nicknamed the “Eightballers”

United States Navy Naval Air Station - United States Navy Helicopter Training Squadron, Naval Air Station Whiting Field Milton, Florida / Marine Corps and U. S. Coast Guard Student Naval Aviators / Lineage: HTU-1: December 3, 1950 - March 1957; HTG-1: March 1957- July 1, 1960; HT-8: July 1, 2060 - present.


Where Did That Saying Come From

Where Did That Saying Come From?

Where Did That Saying Come From? “Rome wasn't built in a day”

Rome wasn't built in a day:

Meaning: The proverbial saying 'Rome wasn't built in a day' suggests that a complex task or great achievement takes time and effort and should not be rushed.

History: The earliest known version of this expression is found in the collection of medieval French poems Li Proverbe au Vilain, which was published around 1190:

“Rome ne fu[t] pas faite toute en un jour.”

The expression is first found in English in Richard Taverner's translation from the Latin of Erasmus's Prouerbes, 1545:

“Ye may use this prouerbe when ye wol signifie that one daye... is not ynoughe for... acheuinge... a great matter... Rome was not buylt in one day.”

John Heywood's “A Dialogue Conteinyng the Nomber in Effect of all the Prouerbes in the Englishe Tongue”, was published within a few months and contained the same proveb:

“Rome was not bylt on a daie (quoth he) & yet stood Tyll it was fynysht, as some saie, full fayre.”

The proverb was well enough known for Queen Elizabeth I to have included it in a public address that she made on a visit to Cambridge in 1564:

“But this common saying has given me a certain amount of comfort - a saying which cannot take away, but can at least lessen, the grief that I feel; and the saying is, that Rome was not built in one day.”

Phrases.org UK


Science & Technology

Science & Technology

Science & Technology

Strongly 'handed' squirrels less good at learningLocal water availability is permanently reduced after planting forestsMale sparrows are less intimidated by the songs of aging rivalsXMM-Newton discovers scorching gas in Milky Way's halo Phys.org / MedicalXpress / TechXplore

Guidemaster: Smartwatches worthy of replacing your favorite timepieceSpaceX successfully completes its Dragon abort test [Updated]The machines are whispering: We tested AI Dungeon 2 and cannot stop laughingTremors turns 30, the most perfect B movie creature feature ever madeGoop’s Netflix series: It’s so much worse than expected and can’t unsee it ARS Technica


Bizarre News (we couldn’t make up stuff this good – real news story)

Bizarre News (we couldn’t make up stuff this good - real news story)

In death of dinosaurs, it was all about the asteroid - not volcanoes

In death of dinosaurs, it was all about the asteroid - not volcanoes

Source: Yale University

Summary: Volcanic activity did not play a direct role in the mass extinction event that killed the dinosaurs, according to an international team of researchers. It was all about the asteroid.

In a break from a number of other recent studies, Yale assistant professor of geology & geophysics Pincelli Hull and her colleagues argue in a new research paper in Science that environmental impacts from massive volcanic eruptions in India in the region known as the Deccan Traps happened well before the Cretaceous-Paleogene extinction event 66 million years ago and therefore did not contribute to the mass extinction.

Most scientists acknowledge that the mass extinction event, also known as K-Pg, occurred after an asteroid slammed into Earth. Some researchers also have focused on the role of volcanoes in K-Pg due to indications that volcanic activity happened around the same time.

“Volcanoes can drive mass extinctions because they release lots of gases, like SO2 and CO2, that can alter the climate and acidify the world”, said Hull, lead author of the new study. “But recent work has focused on the timing of lava eruption rather than gas release.”

In death of dinosaurs, it was all about the asteroid - not volcanoes

To pinpoint the timing of volcanic gas emission, Hull and her colleagues compared global temperature change and the carbon isotopes (an isotope is an atom with a higher or lower number of neutrons than normal) from marine fossils with models of the climatic effect of CO2 release. They concluded that most of the gas release happened well before the asteroid impact -- and that the asteroid was the sole driver of extinction.

“Volcanic activity in the late Cretaceous caused a gradual global warming event of about two degrees, but not mass extinction”, said former Yale researcher Michael Henehan, who compiled the temperature records for the study. “A number of species moved toward the North and South poles but moved back well before the asteroid impact.”

Added Hull,

“A lot of people have speculated that volcanoes mattered to K-Pg, and we're saying, 'No, they didn't.'”

Recent work on the Deccan Traps, in India, has also pointed to massive eruptions in the immediate aftermath of the K-Pg mass extinction. These results have puzzled scientists because there is no warming event to match. The new study suggests an answer to this puzzle, as well.

“The K-Pg extinction was a mass extinction and this profoundly altered the global carbon cycle”, said Yale postdoctoral associate Donald Penman, the study's modeler. “Our results show that these changes would allow the ocean to absorb an enormous amount of CO2 on long time scales - perhaps hiding the warming effects of volcanism in the aftermath of the event.”

The International Ocean Discovery Program, the National Science Foundation, and Yale University helped fund the research.

Science Daily (01/15/2020) video


© CEASAR CHOPPY by cartoonist Marty Gavin - archives Ceasar Choppy's Navy! “© CEASAR CHOPPY” by Marty Gavin

SONG FACTS

“As Tears Go” - Marianne Faithfull 1964

“As Tears Go By” - Marianne Faithfull
Album: Marianne Faithfull
Released 1964 video

As Tears Go Byvideo has been one of Marianne Faithfull‘s greatest hits. But who would have thought that “As Tears Go Byvideo was a Rolling Stones original and a piece co-penned by Sir Mick Jagger? Well, indeed, it’s true! In 1995, Mick Jagger recalled the creation of this song. He stated:

“I wrote the lyrics, and Keith wrote the melody. It’s a very melancholy song for a 21-year-old to write:

The evening of the day, watching children play - it’s very dumb and naive, but it’s got a very sad sort of thing about it, almost like an older person might write.”

“You know, it’s like a metaphor for being old: You’re watching children playing and realizing you’re not a child. It’s a relatively mature song considering the rest of the output at the time. And we didn’t think of doing it, because The Rolling Stones were a butch Blues group. But Marianne Faithfull’s version was already a big, proven hit song… It was one of the first things I ever wrote.”

About the Song

As Tears Go Byvideo written by Rolling Stones members Mick Jagger and Keith Richards, and manager Andrew Loog Oldham, “As Tears Go By” was originally recorded by Marianne Faithfull. She released it as a single in 1964. 'As Tears Go By' reached no. 9 in the United Kingdom.

Later, The Rolling Stones recorded their own version and released the track in late 1965. It was included on their album December’s Children (And Everybody’s) and subsequently as a single in North America.

In 1966, it proved it’s a hit as it reached no. 1 on Canada’s RPM Top Singles. Also, it peaked at no. 6 on the Billboard Hot 100.

The Song’s Genesis

As Tears Go Byvideo was one of the first original compositions by Jagger and Richards. The story has it that Rolling Stones manager Andrew Loog Oldham locked Jagger and Richards in a kitchen to force them to write a song together. Moreover, Oldham even told them what kind of song he wanted and how would they do it.

“I want a song with brick walls all around it, high windows and no sex.”

Initially, the result was entitled “As Time Goes Byvideo. It was the title of the song that Dooley Wilson sings in the movie Casablanca video. Consequently, Oldham replaced Time with Tears in the title of the song.

After writing and composing the song, Jagger and Richards performed the piece to Oldham. Richards stated:

“We thought, what a terrible piece of tripe. We came out and played it to Andrew [Oldham], and he said ‘It’s a hit.’ We actually sold this stuff, and it actually made money. Mick and I were thinking, this is money for old rope!”

Marianne Faithfull, official website / Country Thang Daily / All Music / Song Facts / Marianne Faithfull Close Up - BBC - Marianne Faithfull; video

Image: “Marianne Faithfull (album)” by Marianne Faithfull


Jeopardy

A Test for People Who Know Everything

From the Jeopardy Archives Category - “MORE COWBELL” ($200)

“In an 'SNL' skit, '(Don't Fear) The Reaper' was the song on which this man was playing a mean cowbell.”

Answer for People Who Do Not Know Everything, or Want to Verify Their Answer YouTube

From the Jeopardy Archives Category - “MORE COWBELL” ($400)

“Cowbell starts off 'Honky Tonk Women' by this band, which I want you to gimmay, gimmay, gimmay.”

Answer for People Who Do Not Know Everything, or Want to Verify Their Answer YouTube

From the Jeopardy Archives Category - “MORE COWBELL” ($600)

“This rap trio from Brooklyn - as in 'No Sleep Till...' - threw in a cowbell solo on 'Hey Ladies'.”

Answer for People Who Do Not Know Everything, or Want to Verify Their Answer YouTube

From the Jeopardy Archives Category - “MORE COWBELL” ($800)

“Tom Fogerty said, 'Man, that sure sounds good when the cowbell comes in' as this band recorded 'Born On The Bayou'.”

Answer for People Who Do Not Know Everything, or Want to Verify Their Answer YouTube

From the Jeopardy Archives Category - “MORE COWBELL” ($1,000)

“'Rock on, gold dust woman, take your silver spoon, dig your grave', sang this cowbell-employing band.”

Answer for People Who Do Not Know Everything, or Want to Verify Their Answer YouTube


Answer to Last Week's Test

From the Jeopardy Archives Category - “MEDICAL MATTERS” ($200)

“Still used clinically, the "G" type is a naturally occurring form of this first true antibiotic.”

● Answer: Penicillin. Mayo Clinic.org

From the Jeopardy Archives Category - “MEDICAL MATTERS” ($400)

'

“Thalassemia, an inherited form of anemia, occurs when red blood cells have less of this oxygen carrier than normal.”

● Answer: Hemoglobin. Medline Plus.gov

From the Jeopardy Archives Category - “MEDICAL MATTERS” ($600)

“Until the 1940s & this test named for its creator, cervical cancer was killing more women than any other kind.”

● Answer: a Pap smear. Mayo Clinic.org

From the Jeopardy Archives Category - “MEDICAL MATTERS” ($800)

“An inguinal type of this occurs when soft tissue protrudes through a weak point or tear in the lower abdomen.”

● Answer: a Hernia. WebMD

From the Jeopardy Archives Category - “MEDICAL MATTERS” ($1,000)

“Brand names of this pain reliever include Tylenol & Feverall.”

● Answer: Acetaminophen. WebMD


Joke of the Day

Joke of the Day

Joke of the Day

“LAWYER JOKES”

How does an attorney sleep? Well, first he lies on one side, then he lies on the other.

You’ve heard that one, along with a million other lawyer jokes that people have sprung on you from the moment you first announced you were going to school to be a paralegal. Some of them probably even get told around the law office. Even lawyers like to laugh and there are a lot of aspects of legal practice that are ripe for a little deadpan humor.

ParalegalEDU.org

Joke of the Day

“No Lawsuits”

Sidewalks were treacherous after a heavy snowstorm blanketed the University of Idaho campus. Watching people slip and slide, A law student gingerly made his way to class.

Suddenly the law student found himself on a clean, snow-free section of walkway.

This is weird, I thought - until he noticed that it was directly in front of the College of Law building.

“Waiting for the Fine”

The judge had not yet put in an appearance in the San Diego traffic court.

When the bailiff entered the courtroom, he sensed the nervousness of the traffic offenders awaiting their ordeal.

“Good morning, ladies and gentlemen”, he said. “Welcome to ‘What’s My Fine?’”