Old Sailors' Almanac


Week 36, 2020

Previous Week   August 31, 2020 - September 06, 2020  Next Week

Battle of Actium on September 02, 31 BC

Battle of Actium on September 02, 31 BC

Battle of Actium: At the Battle of Actium, off the western coast of Greece, Roman leader Octavian wins a decisive victory against the forces of Roman Mark Antony and Cleopatra, queen of Egypt. Before their forces suffered final defeat, Antony and Cleopatra broke though the enemy lines and fled to Egypt, where they would commit suicide the following year.

With the assassination of Roman dictator Julius Caesar in 44 B.C., Rome fell into civil war. To end the fighting, a coalition–the Second Triumvirate–was formed by three of the strongest belligerents. The triumvirate was made up of Octavian, Caesar’s great-nephew and chosen heir; Mark Antony, a powerful general; and Lepidus, a Roman statesman. The empire was divided among the three, and Antony took up the administration of the eastern provinces. Upon arriving in Asia Minor, he summoned Queen Cleopatra to answer charges that she had aided his enemies. Cleopatra, ruler of Egypt since 51 B.C., had once been Julius Caesar’s lover and had borne him a child, who she named Caesarion, meaning “little Caesar”.

Cleopatra sought to seduce Antony as she had Caesar before him, and in 41 B.C. arrived at Tarsus on a magnificent river barge, dressed as Venus, the Roman goddess of love. Successful in her efforts, Antony returned with her to Alexandria, where they spent the winter in debauchery. In 40 B.C., Antony returned to Rome and married Octavian’s sister Octavia in an effort to mend his increasingly strained relationship with Octavian. The triumvirate, however, continued to deteriorate. In 37 B.C. Antony separated from Octavia and traveled to the East, arranging for Cleopatra to join him in Syria. In their time apart, Cleopatra had borne him twins, a son and a daughter. According to Octavian’s propagandists, the lovers were then married, which violated the Roman law restricting Romans from marrying foreigners.

Battle of Actium on September 02, 31 BC

Antony’s disastrous military campaign against Parthia in 36 B.C. further reduced his prestige, but in 34 B.C. he was more successful against Armenia. To celebrate the victory, he staged a triumphal procession through the streets of Alexandria, in which Antony and Cleopatra sat on golden thrones, and their children were given imposing royal titles. Many in Rome, spurred on by Octavian, interpreted the spectacle as a sign that Antony intended to deliver the Roman Empire into alien hands.

After several more years of tension and propaganda attacks, Octavian declared war against Cleopatra, and therefore Antony, in 31 B.C. Enemies of Octavian rallied to Antony’s side, but Octavian’s brilliant military commanders gained early successes against his forces. On September 2, 31 B.C., their fleets clashed at Actium in Greece. After heavy fighting, Cleopatra broke from the engagement and set course for Egypt with 60 of her ships. Antony then broke through the enemy line and followed her. The disheartened fleet that remained surrendered to Octavian. One week later, Antony’s land forces surrendered.

Battle of Actium on September 02, 31 BC

Although they had suffered a decisive defeat, it was nearly a year before Octavian reached Alexandria and again defeated Antony. In the aftermath of the battle, Cleopatra took refuge in the mausoleum she had had built for herself. Antony, informed that Cleopatra was dead, stabbed himself with his sword. Before he died, another messenger arrived, saying Cleopatra still lived. Antony was carried to Cleopatra’s retreat, where he died after bidding her to make her peace with Octavian. When the triumphant Roman arrived, she attempted to seduce him, but he resisted her charms. Rather than fall under Octavian’s domination, Cleopatra committed suicide, possibly by means of an asp, a poisonous Egyptian serpent and symbol of divine royalty.

Octavian then executed Cleopatra’s son, Caesarion, annexed Egypt into the Roman Empire, and used Cleopatra’s treasure to pay off his veterans. In 27 B.C., Octavian became Augustus, the first and arguably most successful of all Roman emperors. He ruled a peaceful, prosperous, and expanding Roman Empire until his death in 14 A.D. at the age of 75.

History Channel / Wikipedia / Encyclopedia Britannica / Ancient.eu / STMU History Media.org / University of South Florida - The Greek Ministry of Culture.edu / The Federalist / Battle of Actium on September 02, 31 BC (YouTube) video

“This Day in History”

This Day in History September 02

• 44 BC Pharaoh Cleopatra VII of Egypt declares her son co-ruler as Ptolemy XV Caesarion.

• 44 BC Cicero launches the first of his Philippicae oratorical attacks) on Mark Antony. He will make 14 of them over the following months.

• 1192 Third Crusade: Treaty of Jaffa: is signed between Richard I of England and Saladin.

• 1666 Great Fire of London: breaks out and burns for three days, destroying 10,000 buildings, including Old St Paul's Cathedral.

• 1789 United States Department of the Treasury is founded.

• 1792 French Revolution: September Massacres: rampaging mobs slaughter three Roman Catholic bishops, more than two hundred priests, and prisoners believed to be royalist sympathizers.

• 1807 Battle of Copenhagen (1807) The British Royal Navy bombards Copenhagen with fire bombs and phosphorus rockets to prevent Denmark from surrendering its fleet to Napoleon.

• 1862 American Civil War: Second Battle of Bull Run: United States President Abraham Lincoln reluctantly restores Union General George B. McClellan to full command after General John Pope's disastrous defeat.

• 1864 American Civil War: Union forces enter Atlanta, a day after the Confederate defenders flee the city, ending the Atlanta Campaign.

• 1870 Franco-Prussian War: Battle of Sedan: Prussian forces take Napoleon III of France and 100,000 of his soldiers prisoner.

• 1885 Rock Springs massacre: In Rock Springs, Wyoming, 150 white miners struggling to unionize for better wages and work conditions, attack their Chinese fellow workers killing 28, wounding 15 and forcing several hundred more out of town.

• 1901 Vice President of the United States Theodore Roosevelt utters the famous phrase, “Speak softly and carry a big stick” at the Minnesota State Fair.

• 1945 World War II: Combat ends in the Pacific Theater: Japanese Instrument of Surrender is signed by Japanese Foreign Minister Mamoru Shigemitsu and accepted aboard the battleship USS Missouri in Tokyo Bay.

• 1945 Vietnam declares its independence, forming the Democratic Republic of Vietnam.

• 1958 C-130 shootdown incident United States Air Force C-130A-II is shot down by fighters over Yerevan in Armenia when it strays into Soviet airspace while conducting a sigint mission. All crew members are killed.

Understanding Military Terminology: At the Marine Corps Museum: Norman Rockwell's “The War Hero”

Understanding Military Terminology

Over-the-horizon Amphibious Operation

(DOD) An operational initiative launched from beyond visual and radar range of the shoreline.

Joint Publications (JP 3-02) Joint Doctrine for Amphibious Operations


Activities that are openly acknowledged by or are readily attributable to the United States Government, including those designated to acquire information through authorized and open means without concealment. Overt information may be collected by observation, elicitation, or from knowledgeable human sources.

Joint Publications (JP 2-01.2) Joint and National Intelligence Support to Military

Overt Operation

An operation conducted openly, without concealment.

See also Clandestine Operation; Covert Operation.

Joint Publications (JP 2-01.2) Joint and National Intelligence Support to Military

“The Odyssey”

The Old Salt’s Corner

“The Odyssey”


When the child of morning, rosy-fingered Dawn, appeared, Telemachus bound on his sandals and took a strong spear that suited his hands, for he wanted to go into the city. “Old friend”, said he to the swineherd, “I will now go to the town and show myself to my mother, for she will never leave off grieving till she has seen me. As for this unfortunate stranger, take him to the town and let him beg there of any one who will give him a drink and a piece of bread. I have trouble enough of my own, and cannot be burdened with other people. If this makes him angry so much the worse for him, but I like to say what I mean.”

Then Ulysses said, “Sir, I do not want to stay here; a beggar can always do better in town than country, for any one who likes can give him something. I am too old to care about remaining here at the beck and call of a master. Therefore let this man do as you have just told him, and take me to the town as soon as I have had a warm by the fire, and the day has got a little heat in it. My clothes are wretchedly thin, and this frosty morning I shall be perished with cold, for you say the city is some way off.”

On this Telemachus strode off through the yards, brooding his revenge upon the When he reached home he stood his spear against a bearing-post of the cloister, crossed the stone floor of the cloister itself, and went inside.

Nurse Euryclea saw him long before any one else did. She was putting the fleeces on to the seats, and she burst out crying as she ran up to him; all the other maids came up too, and covered his head and shoulders with their kisses. Penelope came out of her room looking like Diana or Venus, and wept as she flung her arms about her son. She kissed his forehead and both his beautiful eyes, “Light of my eyes,” she cried as she spoke fondly to him, “so you are come home again; I made sure I was never going to see you any more. To think of your having gone off to Pylos without saying anything about it or obtaining my consent. But come, tell me what you saw.”

“The Odyssey” - Book XVII continued ...

~ Homer

Written 800 B.C.E

Translated by Samuel Butler

“The Odyssey” - Table Of Contents

“I’m Just Sayin’”

“I’m Just Sayin”

“More business is lost every year through neglect than through any other cause.”

“When you hold your baby in your arms the first time,

and you think of all the things you can say and do to influence him,

it's a tremendous responsibility.

What you do with him can influence not only him,

but everyone he meets and not for a day or a month or a year but for time and eternity.”

“It has been said that time heals all wounds.

I do not agree.

The wounds remain.

In time, the mind, protecting its sanity,

covers them with scar tissue,

and the pain lessens,

but it is never gone.”

~ Rose Kennedy

“Thought for the Day”

“Thought for the Day”

“The most common way people give up their power is by thinking they don't have any.”

“Nobody is as powerful as we make them out to be.”

“What the mind doesn't understand,

it worships or fears.”

~ Alice Walker

“What I Have Learned”

“What I Learned”

“When a man points a finger at someone else,

he should remember that three of his fingers are pointing at himself.”

“Our Founding Fathers objected to taxation without representation.

They should see it today with representation.”

“If you feel that you are indispensable,

put your finger in a glass of water,

withdraw it,

and note the hole you have left.”

~ Anonymous

Second Hand News

Second Hand News: Articles from Week 36 - August 31, 2020 - September 06, 2020

Top News Stories - Photos (Washington Examiner) Department of Homeland Security secretary: 'All options continue to be on the table' for PortlandRepublicans see law and order as Trump path to victory in New HampshireAdam Schiff denies leaking classified information, but can't say same for other Democrats

Director of National Intelligence John Ratcliffe coordinating U.S. Attorney John Durham, plans to declassify more documentsRatcliffe filed 'crimes reports' over leaks of classified intelJoe Biden's response to Portland unrest: Trump is 'recklessly encouraging violence''

Three Taliban prisoners accused of being involved in killing of U.S. troops to be released: Report'Hundreds arrested at German protest against coronavirus measuresRioting erupts in Swedish city after far-right activists burn Quran

MOST READ: Ohio county tells story of the seismic shift of working-class voters toward RepublicansHerschel Walker's son on Jacob Blake: 'If kindergartners can follow directions from teachers, then grown men can follow directions from police'What we know about CNN host Chris Cuomo's 'shocking' conversation with Michael Cohen that Tucker Carlson plans to reveal Washington Examiner

Top News Stories - Photos (The Federalist) Corporate Media Didn’t Report What It’s Really Like In Kenosha, Wisconsin, So I WillAfter Decades Of Dividing America On Race, Left Insists The Right Is Really To BlamePortland Protestors Occupy Mayor Ted Wheeler’s Apartment Building Demanding His Resignation

What Ray Bradbury Can Teach Us About How To Cultivate CreativityChadwick Boseman Is Gone But Will Never Be ForgottenMarsha Blackburn On The State Of Conservatism In 2020: Can We Shrink Government And Preserve American Values?

MOST READ: C-SPAN Had So Many Democrats Calling In Support For Trump That They Had To Change Their ProtocolWATCH: Democrat State Rep. John DeBerry Shames Rioters, ‘What Kind Of People Have We Become?’Democrats Are Freaking Out, And They Should Be

Trump Lit Up The Skies (And The Right) While The Streets Raged - And Remade Conventions ForeverThe Michael Flynn Saga Reveals Democrats’ Near-Coup Use Of Federal PowerPolice Break Up Apparent Antifa Plot To Light Kenosha On FireLindsay Graham Kept Republican Judiciary Committee Senators In The Dark About Interview Of FBI Agent Joe Pientka The Federalist

Top News Stories - Photos (CORRUPTION CHRONICLES - Mainstream Media Scream: (Watch Dog On-Line Publications) CORRUPTION CHRONICLES: FBI Investigated President Trump’s Tweets Critical of Obama and FBI

“Investigating the Investigators:” Judicial Watch: New Strzok-Page Emails Show FBI Investigated President Trump’s Tweets Critical of Obama and FBI

Judicial Watch Opposes Effort to Toss Civil Rights Lawsuit Alleging D.C. Mayor and other D.C. Officials Violated Judicial Watch’s First Amendment Rights Judicial Watch

“BLM” MTV VMAs: 'Fight to End Systemic Racism!'Deranged MSNBC Pundit Goes on Hateful Rant Against Trump VotersMSNBC Blames Fox for Trump Not Being Blamed for Riots

New York Times’ Sexist Takeaway From RNC: Attacks Tiffany, Ivanka, and GuilfoyleDEFUND PBS Pundits Agree Democrats Are in Trouble on 'Law and Order'DEFUND PBS Host Pelts Top Trump Aide with Hardballs, But Went Easy-Peasy on Biden Aide News Busters

What’s the Difference Between Pirates, Privateers, Buccaneers, and Corsairs? Mr. Answer Man Please Tell Us: What’s the Difference Between Pirates, Privateers, Buccaneers, and Corsairs?

Piracy can be defined as “the act of attacking ships in order to steal from them”, and one who participates in this act is known simply as a pirate. As simple as this may sound in theory, there were in reality different ‘types’ of pirates, as is evident in the various names in the English language given to those engaged in piracy – privateers, buccaneers, and corsairs.

What is a Pirate?

The word ‘pirate’ has its origins in the Greek word peira, meaning ‘an attempt, a trial, or an attack’. Indeed, piracy had already existed in the ancient world as evidenced, for instance, in Plutarch’s Parallel Lives: Pompey . In this work, Plutarch wrote about the pirates who caused much trouble to Rome in the Mediterranean Sea and how Pompey subdued them. The so-called Golden Age of Piracy, however, only occurred much later, between the 1650s and late 1720s, and it was around this time that the semantics of piracy became more complicated.

How Is a Privateer Different From a Pirate?

Perhaps the best known ‘type’ of pirate was the privateer. In a way, these were mercenaries commissioned by a state to attack enemy ships. In other words, a privateer was a pirate with papers. Privateers had existed long before the Golden Age of Piracy. For instance, during the Anglo-Spanish War that lasted from 1585 to 1604, English privateers like Sir Francis Drake targeted the Spanish treasure fleets that were carrying the riches of the New World back to Spain.

Although the war between Spain and England ended privateering continued, due to the constant conflicts between the European powers. For instance, towards the end of the 17 th century, French privateers from Dunkirk and Saint-Malo actively disrupted English maritime commerce, while English privateers such as Sir Henry Morgan operated against England’s enemies in the West Indies.

What’s the Difference Between Pirates, Privateers, Buccaneers, and Corsairs?

Privateer vs Buccaneer

While the term ‘privateer’ was applied to anyone involved in privateering, regardless of the geographical region, the term ‘ buccaneer’ was applied specifically to those pirates who operated in the Caribbean. This term is derived from the French boucan, which is the grill used for smoking the dried meat that was eaten on ships at that time, and initially referred to the French wild game hunters who lived in western Hispaniola during the early 17 th century. Although the buccaneers sustained themselves by hunting wild game, they also partook in piracy when they had the opportunity to do so.

The buccaneers fought primarily against the Spanish, which made them valuable allies to the English and French. During the 17 th century the French established a colony on Tortuga, an island off the northwest coast of Hispaniola, and allowed the buccaneers to use it as a base of operations against the Spanish.

Additionally, after Jamaica was captured by the English from Spain in 1655, the buccaneers were given permission to use the island as a base. The Spanish reacted by exterminating the wild game on the islands of the buccaneers hoping that this would drive them out of the region. The plan backfired, however, as the buccaneers relied even more on raiding the Spanish in order to survive.

What’s the Difference Between Pirates, Privateers, Buccaneers, and Corsairs?

What Are the Two Types of Corsairs?

The term ‘corsair’ is derived directly from the French corsaire, and has its roots in the Latin word cursus, meaning ‘a journey or expedition’. Alternatively, it is plausible that the term is a mispronunciation of the Arabic corsanni, meaning ‘pirate’. Historically, there were two types of corsairs, the first being the privateers who were in the service of the French crown, and the second being those serving the Ottoman Empire and known also as the Barbary corsairs. It may be said that the English term ‘corsair’ is more commonly associated with the latter and therefore will be dealt with in more detail.

The Barbary Corsairs

Like the buccaneers, the Barbary corsairs had a specific sphere of operation, i.e. the Mediterranean. The Barbary corsairs established their bases in the large port cities of the Barbary Coast, most notably Tripoli, Tunis, Algiers, Rabat, and Sale. These cities were initially part of the Ottoman Empire, but eventually became its vassals when the corsairs came to power. Furthermore, these states were able to act independently and were often beyond the control of the Ottoman Empire.

During the early 16 th century, the corsairs began to raid western European coastal cities and disrupted European trade in the Mediterranean. Apart from raiding the goods of European merchants, the raids conducted by the Barbary corsairs were also meant to capture Christian slaves who could then be sold throughout the Ottoman Empire. The Barbary corsairs reached their peak of power between the early and middle of the 17 th century, after which the European powers began to organize the navies to combat the corsairs openly. Nevertheless, the Barbary corsairs remained a force in the Mediterranean until the 19 th century. The conquest of Algiers by the French in 1830 marked the end of the Barbary corsairs.

Piracy in the Ancient Mediterranean and the Notorious Cilicians

French Pirate Olivier Levasseur Left Behind a Curious Cryptogram - Does it Lead to his Long-Lost Treasure?

Blackbeard and his Infamous Pirate Ship, Queen Anne’s Revenge

Ancient Origins / Piracy - Privateer - Buccaneer - Corsair Wikipedia / Encyclopedia Britannica / Mental Floss / Quora / Mariners Museum.org / What’s the Difference Between Pirates, Privateers, Buccaneers, and Corsairs? (YouTube) video

NAVSPEAK aka U.S. Navy Slang - U.S. Navy

NAVSPEAK aka U.S. Navy Slang

P-way: A passageway or a hall.

Package Check (Submarine Service): A common form of greeting where one man shakes another man's crotch. This is done not only to test the 'mettle' of the one receiving the greeting but also as a sign of comraderie. However, ever since hazing became increasingly unpopular over the last few years this greeting has occurred less often. Much more common in the submarine service due to the impossibility of discharge while underway.

Paddles: Code word for the LSO (see above).

Paint Chit: One of the sources for power on a ship, especially on large ships like carriers or battleships. Sailors must go to the “Paint Locker” with properly signed chits to receive paint and painting equipment. This is especially true if the paint being requested is classified as hazardous material, requiring special ventilation and lockouts. Workers in the Paint Locker can literally turn someones life into a living hell, by running them all over the ship to get the proper signatures on their paint chit.


Just for MARINES - The Few. The Proud.

Just for you MARINE

Padre: Chaplain, usually Catholic, from the Spanish and Italian terms for “father”.

PALS: Pouch Attachment Ladder System, a webbing system used to attach combat accessories to MOLLE and ILBE equipment.

Page 11: NAVMC 118(11), a page of a Marine's Service Record Book or Officer Qualification Record where administrative remarks are made concerning a Marine's performance and conduct, and which may contain negative recommendations regarding promotion or re-enlistment; while not a punishment itself or inherently negative, it is part of a Marine's permanent service record and used as a basis for administrative decisions regarding a Marine's career; the term commonly refers to an entry itself made in this section.


Naval Aviation Squadron Nicknames

Naval Aviation Squadron Nicknames

HSM-79 Helicopter Maritime Strike (HSM) Squadron SEVEN NINE - nicknamed the “Griffins”

United States Navy Naval Air Station - Naval Air Station North Island, Naval Base Coronado Location San Diego, California / Coronado, California / Helicopter Maritime Strike Squadron - Squadron Lineage: HSM-79: June 2, 2016 - present.

Where Did That Saying Come From

Where Did That Saying Come From?

Where Did That Saying Come From? “Rob Peter to pay Paul”

Rob Peter to pay Paul:

Meaning: To take from one merely to give to another; to discharge one debt by incurring another.

History: There's a text, first published in 1661, that purports to explain the origin of this expression - Peter Heylyn's Ecclesia Restaurata:

“The lands of Westminster so dilapidated by Bishop Thirlby, that there was almost nothing left to support the dignity; for which good service he had been preferred to the see of Norwich, in the year foregoing. Most of the lands invaded by the great men of the court, the rest laid out for reparation to the church of St Paul - pared almost to the very quick in those days of rapine. From hence first came that significant by-word (as is said by some) of robbing Peter to pay Paul.”

A 350 year-old text claiming to explain the origin of a phrase is usually almost as good as a smoking gun for etymologists. Regrettably, Heylyn's understanding was flawed; the phrase was known long before 1661 and even before the birth of the 16th century cleric Thomas Thirlby. The ecclesiastical tome Jacob's well: an English treatise on the cleansing of man's conscience, circa 1450, includes the phrase in it's original form:

“To robbe Petyr & geve it Poule, it were non almesse but gret synne.”

The expression may be even earlier than 1450. John Wyclif's Selected English Works contains this text:

“Lord, hou schulde God approve that you robbe Petur and gif is robbere to Poule in ye name of Crist?”

There is however, some dispute as to the date of the above. It is reprinted in a Victorian book but the original is now lost. If it does indeed arise from Wyclif the date would be 1380. Others have speculated that a more realistic date is around 1500.

The expression was well enough established in English for it to have been considered proverbial by John Heywood when he published A dialogue conteinyng the nomber in effect of all the prouerbes in the Englishe tongue in 1546:

“Rob Peter and pay Paul: thou sayest I do;

But thou robbest and poulst Peter and Paul too.”

The phrase was also in use in other European countries and was known in France by at least 1611, when Cotgrave produced A Dictionarie of the French and English Tongues:

“Découvrir Saint Pierre pour couvrir Saint Paul [Strip Peter to clothe Paul].”

The precise date is not the only aspect of this phrase that is somewhat uncertain. Scholars also disagree as to the thinking of whoever coined it. Given that any two names would work in a 'rob X to pay Y' proverb, why choose Peter and Paul?

It has been suggested that the primary reason for Peter and Paul is the alliteration, that is, the same reason that Jack was paired with Jill when they went up the hill. That may well be part of the story, but there's surely more to it. The similarities between Saint Peter and Saint Paul go deeper than their sharing of the letter P.

The expression was coined at a time when almost all English people were Christian and they would have been well used to hearing Peter and Paul paired together. They were both apostles of Christ, both martyred in Rome and shared the Feast Day on 29th June. This commemoration now passes by with little mention, but not so in medieval England.

The essence of the meaning of 'rob Peter to pay Paul' is the pointlessness of taking from one only to give to another who was similar. There are many churches of Saint Peter and Saint Paul in England and throughout Europe. It may not be the case that, as Peter Heylyn asserted, that the phrase arose from the borrowing of money from one church to fund another, but from the familiarity of the notion of Peter and Paul being alike and inseparable.

Phrases.org UK

Science & Technology

Science & Technology

Science & Technology

The mysterious, legendary giant squid's genome is revealedResearchers propose 'Human Screenome Project' to study the impacts of digital mediaHow cells assemble their microtubule skeletonDiscovery reveals how remora fishes know when to hitch a ride aboard their hosts Phys.org / MedicalXpress / TechXplore

Transparent, power-producing crystals could lead to invisible robots, self-powered touch screensAphid-munching beetle could help save hemlock forests‘Frankenstein’ material can self-heal, reproduceNSF rolls out huge makeover of science statistics Science AAAS

Bizarre News (we couldn’t make up stuff this good – real news story)

Bizarre News (we couldn’t make up stuff this good - real news story)

Neanderthals went underwater for their tools

Neanderthals went underwater for their tools

Source: PLOS

Summary: Neanderthals collected clam shells and volcanic rock from the beach and coastal waters of Italy during the Middle Paleolithic, according to a new study.

Neanderthals are known to have used tools, but the extent to which they were able to exploit coastal resources has been questioned. In this study, Villa and colleagues explored artifacts from the Neanderthal archaeological cave site of Grotta dei Moscerini in Italy, one of two Neanderthal sites in the country with an abundance of hand-modified clam shells, dating back to around 100,000 years ago.

The authors examined 171 modified shells, most of which had to be retouched to be used as scrapers. All of these shells belonged to the Mediterranean smooth clam species Callista chione. Based on the state of preservation of the shells, including shell damage and encrustation on the shells by marine organisms, the authors inferred that nearly a quarter of the shells had been collected underwater from the sea floor, as live animals, as opposed to being washed up on the beach.

In the same cave sediments, the authors also found abundant pumice stones likely used as abrading tools, which apparently drifted via sea currents from erupting volcanoes in the Gulf of Naples (70km south) onto the Moscerini beach, where they were collected by Neanderthals.

Neanderthals went underwater for their tools

These findings join a growing list of evidence that Neanderthals in Western Europe were in the practice of wading or diving into coastal waters to collect resources long before Homo sapiens brought these habits to the region.

The authors also note that shell tools were abundant in sediment layers that had few stone tools, suggesting Neanderthals might have turned to making shell tools during times where more typical stone materials were scarce (though it's also possible that clam shells were used because they have a thin and sharp cutting edge, which can be maintained through re-sharpening, unlike flint tools).

The authors add:

“The cave opens on a beach. It has a large assemblage of 171 tools made on shells collected on the beach or gathered directly from the sea floor as live animals by skin diving Neanderthals. Skin diving for shells or fresh water fishing in low waters was a common activity of Neanderthals, according to data from other sites and from an anatomical study published by E. Trinkaus. Neanderthals also collected pumices erupted from volcanoes in the gulf of Naples and transported by sea to the beach.”

Science Daily (01/15/2020) video

Second Hand News

Second Hand News: Articles from Week 36 - August 31, 2020 - September 06, 2020

Top News Stories - Photos (Daily Mail) Suspect in Trump supporter's deadly shooting describes himself as '100% ANTIFA' and was arrested for 'taking a loaded gun to another “Black Lives Matter” protest in Portland earlier this year'Wisconsin Governor Tony Evers says Donald Trump is NOT welcome in Kenosha: Democrat says the president should stay away after he announced plans to visit Jacob Blake's family in the riot-torn city on Tuesday

President Trump says Joe Biden is 'rushing out of his basement early' to campaign in response to poll showing the president winning nationwide and surging ahead in battleground statesThe New York City exodus: Fleet of moving trucks arrive in the Upper West Side and dozens wait in line to hire U-Hauls as residents reeling from lockdown and the surge in homeless people move out - home sales more than DOUBLE as city is ravaged by coronavirus and soaring crime rates

Democrat Portland mayor Ted Wheeler blames Trump for MAGA supporter's deadly shooting and calls the president 'the most divisive figure in history' who's trying to incite hate to help his campaign'Shots fired' at pro-Trump car caravan in Los Angeles: SWAT team swarms apartment to find 'gunman' as the president's fans rally across the country - 24 hours after a MAGA supporter was killed in Portland

St Louis cop dies from injuries after he was shot in the head by gunmanPolice clash with “Black Lives Matter” protesters outside the White House for the second night: Cops fire tear gas at demonstrators yelling at people at their homes and in restaurants to 'take to the streets' - as more violence breaks out in PortlandVandals tear down Trump 2020 flags from outside a Montana family's home and burn them on the front lawn while four children are sleeping inside

Up to 90 per cent of people diagnosed with coronavirus may not be carrying enough of it to infect anyone else, study finds as experts say tests are too sensitiveRussian Top Gun 'headbutts' B-52: Dramatic footage shows Su-27 fighter jet with afterburner on cut in front of nuclear-capable U.S. bomber to wash it in turbulence in dangerous intercept over the Black Sea Daily Mail

Top News Stories - Photos (Daily Mail) “Black Lives Matter” Activist: ‘I’m Ready To Put These Police In The F***ing Ground’, ‘Burn The White House Down’Right-Wing Protester Killed In Portland After Democrat Mayor Refused Federal Help. Antifa Celebrates.

Trump Unloads On Portland Democrat Mayor After He Refused Federal Help, Protester Killed‘I Plead With You, Back Off:’ California Church Fined Thousands For Meeting In-Person And Singing

Anti-Police Protesters Rush ‘Upscale’ Kenosha Neighborhood: ‘Out Of Your House And Into The Streets!’Left-Wing Extremists Torch Portland Police Building, Storm Mayor’s Apartment Building

Black Democrat Unloads Over Violent Riots: We’re ‘Too Frightened To Stand Up And Protect Our Own Stuff’New Footage Emerges From Kenosha Shooting; First Person Shot Told People: ‘Shoot Me, N****r’

Vernon Jones Calls For Investigation Into Mob That Harassed Him, Others Outside White HouseWATCH: Leftists Allegedly Assault, Harass Elderly People Leaving Republican National Convention Daily Wire

Top News Stories - Photos (John Batchelor)

What is a superspreader & What is to be done? audio  
The wait for therapeutics and vaccines & What is to be done? audio  

Democrats respond to the riots when the polls turn against them and for Trump. audio  

Strangely, Joe Biden threatens that he’ll shut down the economy to save us from the virus. audio  
Shutting down the economy is “insane”. “Joe Biden has been wrong on almost every policy stand [in his entire political life]”. audio  
The recovery accelerates as the Fed promises low interest rates indefinitely. audio  

Trump vs the "Biden-Sanders Manifesto." audio  
What drives the violent in the Blue cities? audio  

War of Two: Alexander Hamilton, Aaron Burr, and the Duel that Stunned the Nation audio   2 of 8 audio   3 of 8 audio   4 of 8 audio   5 of 8 audio   6 of 8 audio   7 of 8 audio   8 of 8 audio   John Batchelor (08/31/2020)

© CEASAR CHOPPY by cartoonist Marty Gavin - archives Ceasar Choppy's Navy! “© CEASAR CHOPPY” by Marty Gavin


“Come and Stay With Me” - Marianne Faithfull 1965

“Come and Stay With Me” - Marianne Faithfull
Album: Marianne Faithfull
Released 1965 video

Come and Stay With Mevideo was written by Jackie DeShannon for Marianne Faithfull. The singer's manager Tony Calder told Mojo magazine September 2008 that the liaison with DeShannon happened in an unorthodox manner when he was in Los Angeles with Jimmy Page. He explained:

“One night I couldn't get into our hotel room because Jimmy and Jackie DeShannon were shagging. So I yelled, 'When you've finished could you write a song for Marianne?'” The songwriter came up with this song plus with Page an album track, “In My Time of Sorrowvideo.

Despite the song's lyric being fairly ambiguous, it was generally interpreted as an invitation to stay the night and sleep together. The subject matter is reasonably innocuous by today's standards, however it was deemed controversially racy back in 1965.

Jackie DeShannon recorded “Come and Stay With Mevideo herself on her 1968 album Laurel Canyon.

Marianne Faithfull, official website / All Music / Song Facts / Marianne Faithfull Close Up - BBC - Marianne Faithfull; video

Image: “Marianne Faithfull (album)” by Marianne Faithfull



● The oldest chemical elements - those known and used by humans for at least 2000 years are what metals?

Answer to Trivia

● Which 1878 Gilbert and Sullivan operetta was subtitled “The Lass that Loved a Sailor”?

Answer to Trivia

● What two numbers have a sum of one thousand and a difference of one hundred?

Answer to Trivia

● What is the home town of Shakespeare?

Answer to Trivia


A Test for People Who Know Everything

From the Jeopardy Archives Category - “MEDICAL MATTERS” ($200)

“Still used clinically, the "G" type is a naturally occurring form of this first true antibiotic.”

Answer for People Who Do Not Know Everything, or Want to Verify Their Answer Mayo Clinic.org

From the Jeopardy Archives Category - “MEDICAL MATTERS” ($400)

“Thalassemia, an inherited form of anemia, occurs when red blood cells have less of this oxygen carrier than normal.”

Answer for People Who Do Not Know Everything, or Want to Verify Their Answer Medline Plus.gov

From the Jeopardy Archives Category - “MEDICAL MATTERS” ($600)

“Until the 1940s & this test named for its creator, cervical cancer was killing more women than any other kind.”

Answer for People Who Do Not Know Everything, or Want to Verify Their Answer Mayo Clinic.org

From the Jeopardy Archives Category - “MEDICAL MATTERS” ($800)

“An inguinal type of this occurs when soft tissue protrudes through a weak point or tear in the lower abdomen.”

Answer for People Who Do Not Know Everything, or Want to Verify Their Answer WebMD

From the Jeopardy Archives Category - “MEDICAL MATTERS” ($1,000)

“Brand names of this pain reliever include Tylenol & Feverall.”

Answer for People Who Do Not Know Everything, or Want to Verify Their Answer WebMD

Answer to Last Week's Test

From the Jeopardy Archives Category - “LIGHTHOUSES” ($200)

“For centuries, wood was the main fuel used in lighthouses; in the 1700s, this animal product became the primary source.”

● Answer: Whale oil. Mystic Seaport.org

From the Jeopardy Archives Category - “LIGHTHOUSES” ($400)


“When her husband died in 1776, Hannah Thomas became the first U.S. woman keeper, taking his job at this state's Plymouth Light.”

● Answer: Massachusetts. Bug Light.org

From the Jeopardy Archives Category - “LIGHTHOUSES” ($600)

“All U.S. lighthouses come under the jurisdiction of this branch of the Armed Services.”

● Answer: the Coast Guard. United States Lighthouse Society.org

From the Jeopardy Archives Category - “LIGHTHOUSES” ($800)

“In 1937 a lighthouse was constructed & named for her on tiny Howland Island, an island she never reached.”

● Answer: (Amelia) Earhart. Atlas Obscura

From the Jeopardy Archives Category - “LIGHTHOUSES” ($1,000)

“Built by Romans before 100 A.D., the Tower of Hercules in the Galicia area of this country is the world's oldest active lighthouse.”

● Answer: Spain. UNESCO World Heritage Centre.org

Joke of the Day

Joke of the Day

Joke of the Day


How does an attorney sleep? Well, first he lies on one side, then he lies on the other.

You’ve heard that one, along with a million other lawyer jokes that people have sprung on you from the moment you first announced you were going to school to be a paralegal. Some of them probably even get told around the law office. Even lawyers like to laugh and there are a lot of aspects of legal practice that are ripe for a little deadpan humor.


Joke of the Day

“Running the Show”

A deputy sheriff is assigned to courthouse security. Part of the deputy sheriff job, is to explain court procedures to visitors.

One day I was showing a group of ninth-graders around.

Court was in recess and only the clerk and a young man in custody wearing handcuffs were in the courtroom.

One day the deputy sheriff was showing a group of ninth-graders around.

The deputy sheriff pointing to the bench says, “This is where the judge sits”.

“The lawyers sit at these tables. The court clerk sits over there. The court recorder, or stenographer, sits over here. Near the judge is the witness stand and over there is where the jury sits. As you can see.”

Continuing... “There are a lot of people involved in making this system work.”

At that point, the prisoner raised his cuffed hands and said, “Yeah, but I’m the one who makes it all happen.”

“Guilty as Charged”

In Fort Worth, Texas, a young lady was hauled before the judge for driving with expired license plates.

The judge listened attentively while the young lady gave him a long, plausible explanation.

Then the judge said with great courtesy, “My dear sir, we are not blaming you - we’re just fining you.”