Old Sailors' Almanac

THIS WEEK IN HISTORY

Week 49, 2020

Previous Week   November 30, 2020 - December 06, 2020  Next Week

Monroe Doctrine declared on December 02, 1823

Monroe Doctrine declared on December 02, 1823

Monroe Doctrine declared: President James Monroe’s 1823 annual message to Congress included a warning to European powers not to interfere in the affairs of the Western Hemisphere. This portion of the address is known as the Monroe Doctrine.

The United States was wary of European intervention in Florida, the Pacific Northwest, and Latin America. In 1821, Russia claimed control of the entire Pacific coast from Alaska to Oregon and closed the area to foreign shipping. This development coincided with rumors that Spain, with the help of European allies, was planning to reconquer its former Latin American colonies.

European intervention threatened British as well as American interests. Britain had a flourishing trade with Latin America, which would decline if Spain regained its New World colonies, and had claims to territory in the Oregon country of the Pacific Northwest. In 1823, British Foreign Minister George Canning proposed that the United States and Britain jointly announce their opposition to further European intervention in the Americas.

Secretary of State John Quincy Adams opposed a joint declaration. He convinced President Monroe to make a unilateral declaration of American policy - known as the Monroe Doctrine. Monroe announced that the Western Hemisphere was henceforth closed to further European colonization or puppet monarchs. He also said that the United States would not interfere in internal European affairs.

For much of the nineteenth century, the United States lacked the military strength to prevent European intervention in the New World. But since European meddling threatened British as well as American interests, the Monroe Doctrine was enforced by the Royal Navy. Nevertheless, for the American people, the Monroe Doctrine was the proud symbol of American hegemony in the Western Hemisphere. Unilaterally, the United States had defined its rights and interests in the New World.

President James Monroe, The Monroe Doctrine from the President's Annual Message to Congress, Washington Republican Extra, December 2, 1823. (Gilder Lehrman Collection).

Transcript of Monroe Doctrine (1823) (Yale Law School)

Monroe Doctrine declared on December 02, 1823 (The Capture of the Hessians at Trenton, December 26, 1776, by John Trumbull, showing Captain William Washington, with a wounded hand, on the right and Lt. Monroe, severely wounded and helped by Dr. John Riker)

Excerpt

Our policy, in regard to Europe, which was adopted at an early stage of the wars which have so long agitated that quarter of the globe, nevertheless remains the same, which is, not to interfere in the internal concerns of any of its powers; to consider the government de facto as the legitimate government for us; to cultivate friendly relations with it, and to preserve those relations by a frank, firm, and manly policy, meeting, in all instances, the just claims of every power; submitting to injuries from none. But, in regard to those continents, circumstances are eminently and conspicuously different.

It is impossible that the allied powers should extend their political system to any portion of either continent, without endangering our peace and happiness; nor can any one believe that our Southern Brethren, if left to themselves, would adopt it of their own accord. It is equally impossible, therefore, that we should behold such interposition, in any form, with indifference. If we look to the comparative strength and resources of Spain and those new governments, and their distance from each other, it must be obvious that she can never subdue them. It is still the true policy of the United States, to leave the parties to themselves, in the hope that other powers will pursue the same course.

Gilder Lehrman.org / Wikipedia / Encyclopedia Britannica / Yale Law School - Lillian Goldman Law Library / Our Documents.gov / History Channel / Monroe Doctrine declared on December 02, 1823 (YouTube) video

“This Day in History”

This Day in History December 02

• 1409 University of Leipzig opens.

• 1697 St Paul's Cathedral is consecrated in London.

• 1804 Notre Dame Cathedral in Paris: Napoleon Bonaparte crowns himself Emperor of the French.

• 1805 War of the Third Coalition: Battle of Austerlitz: French troops under Napoleon Bonaparte decisively defeat a joint Russo-Austrian force.

• 1845 Manifest destiny: In a State of the Union message, U.S. Pidresent James K. Polk proposes that the United States should aggressively expand into the West.

• 1859 Militant abolitionist leader John Brown is hanged for his October 16 raid on Harpers Ferry, West Virginia.

• 1917 World War I: Russia and the Central Powers sign an armistice at Brest-Litovsk, and peace talks leading to the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk begin.

• 1927 Ford Model A: Following 19 years of Ford Model T production, the Ford Motor Company unveils the Ford Model A as its new automobile.

• 1930 Great Depression: In a State of the Union message, U.S. President Herbert Hoover proposes a $150 million (equivalent to $2,296,000,000 in 2019) public works program to help generate jobs and stimulate the economy.

• 1942 World War II: Manhattan Project: A team led by Enrico Fermi initiates the first artificial self-sustaining nuclear chain reaction.

• 1943 World War II: Luftwaffe bombing raid on the harbour of Bari, Italy, sinks numerous cargo and transport ships, including the American SS John Harvey, which is carrying a stockpile of World War I-era mustard gas.

• 1950 Korean War: Battle of the Ch'ongch'on River: ends with a Chinese victory, UN forces are completely expelled from North Korea.

• 1988 Benazir Bhutto is sworn in as Prime Minister of Pakistan, becoming the first woman to head the government of an Islam-dominated state.

• 1993 Space Shuttle program: STS-61: NASA launches the Space Shuttle Endeavour on a mission to repair the Hubble Space Telescope.

• 2001 Enron files for Chapter 11 bankruptcy.


Understanding Military Terminology: At the Marine Corps Museum: Norman Rockwell's “The War Hero”

Understanding Military Terminology

Personnel Recovery

(DOD) The sum of military, diplomatic, and civil efforts to prepare for and execute the recovery and reintegration of isolated personnel.

Also called PR.

See also Combat Search and Rescue; Evasion; Personnel; Recovery; Search and Rescue.

Joint Publications (JP 3-50) Personnel Recovery

Personnel Recovery Coordination Cell

The primary joint force component organization responsible for coordinating and controlling component personnel recovery missions.

Also called PRCC.

Joint Publications (JP 3-50) Personnel Recovery

Personnel Recovery Reference Product

A reference document for personnel recovery containing specific information on a particular country or region of interest.

Also called PRRP.

Joint Publications (JP 3-50) Personnel Recovery


“Tales of Legendary Ghost Ships - Legend of El Caleuche”

The Old Salt’s Corner

“Tales of Legendary Ghost Ships”

Legend of El Caleuche

In the very south of South America, there live a group of people known as the Mapuche. This little known peoples were able to repel the Spanish conquistadors from the 16th century for over 300 years. This allowed them to keep much of their pre Columbian heritage and mythos intact. The collected wisdom is known as the Chilota mythology. One of the those bits of lore is about “The Caleuche”.

The Caleuche is a ghost ship that appears every night near the Island of Chiloe, which is an island off the coast of Chile. The ship appears as a beautiful and bright white sailing ship, with 3 masts of 5 sails each, The ship is always full of lights and with the sounds of a party and the people on board laughing. After she is spotted the ship is then said to disappear or submerge itself under the water. The ghost ship is also known to be able to navigate while under water.

The Ship is not just any type of ship. The Caleuche is said to be is a kind of conscious being that sails the waters around the area. She carries the spirits of all those who have drowned at sea. According to Chilota mythology, the spirits of the drowned are summoned to the ship by three Chilota “water spirits”.

After appearing for a few moments, the ship is then said to disappear or submerge itself under the water. According to legend, the spirits of the drowned are summoned to the ship by Sirena Chilota, her sister Pincoya, and their brother Picoy. Sirena Chilota resembles what we know as mermaids, with the upper body and face of a teen, with long blond hair and golden scales.

Pincoya is said to have long blond hair, be of incomparable beauty, be cheerful and sensual, and rise from the depths of the sea with her totally human like body. Picoy has the body of a sea lion with golden fur and the face of a strikingly attractive human man, with long blond hair.

There appear to be two types of passengers aboard the luminous vessel. The spirits of those who drowned at sea are said to be able to continue their existence in a sort of paradise like existence, instead of being left lonely and cold in the ocean deeps. They are allowed according to some stories to even visit home once a year to give aid to their families. However there are also kidnapped fishermen who are kidnapped and forced to perform the duties as crew.

The folklore also says that the evil Brujo Chilote, the equivalent to the male witch, likes to visit the party on the Caleuche. Although they are evil, they are welcome aboard the ship. They reach the Ship by summoning up a magical water horse which is said to be able to gallop upon the surface of the ocean.

EsoterX / Chiloe Mitologico / LabrujulaVerde (Green Compass) / Night Watch Paranormal / Wikipedia


“I’m Just Sayin’”

“I’m Just Sayin”

“Some of the best lessons are learned from past mistakes.

The error of the past is the wisdom of the future.”

“Because everything we say and do is the length and shadow of our own souls,

our influence is determined by the quality of our being.”

“It is the highest form of self-respect to admit our errors and mistakes and make amends for them.

to make a mistake is only an error in judgment,

but to adhere to it when it is discovered shows infirmity of character.”

~ Dale Turner


“Thought for the Day”

“Thought for the Day”

“Hope is the last thing a person does before they are defeated.”

“As long as I tell the truth I feel that nobody can touch me.”

“I believe that one defines oneself by reinvention.

To not be like your parents.

To not be like your friends.

To be yourself.

To cut yourself out of stone.”

~ Henry Rollins


“What I Have Learned”

“What I Learned”

“Promise me you'll always remember:

You're braver than you believe,

stronger than you seem,

and smarter than you think.”

~ Anonymous


Mr. Answer Man Please Tell Us: When Did Shaking Hands Become a Standard Way of Greeting Someone?

Mr. Answer Man Please Tell Us: When Did Shaking Hands Become a Standard Way of Greeting Someone?

Shaking hands seems like a gesture that has been around forever. Indeed, a throne base from the reign of ancient Assyria's Shalmaneser III in the 9th century BC clearly shows two figures clasping hands. Homer's, The Iliad, usually dated to the 8th century BC, mentions that two characters “clasped each other's hands and pledged their faith”. Centuries later, William Shakespeare wrote in “As You Like It” that two characters “shook hands and swore brothers”. It might seem like shaking hands is an ancient custom, the roots of which are lost to the sands of time.

Except - Historians who have pored over old etiquette books have noticed that handshaking in the modern sense of a greeting doesn’t appear until the mid-19th century, when it was considered a slightly improper gesture that should only be used with friends. But if Shakespeare was writing about shaking hands a few hundred years earlier, what happened?

Mr. Answer Man Please Tell Us: When Did Shaking Hands Become a Standard Way of Greeting Someone?

Defining the Handshake

According to author Torbjörn Lundmark in his “Tales of Hi and Bye”: Greeting and Parting Rituals Around the World, the problem comes in differing definitions of the handshake. The early handshakes mentioned above were part of making deals or burying the hatchet; Shalmaneser III’s throne base references him honoring a treaty with the Babylonian king during a revolt. In the Iliad, Diomedes and Glaucus shook hands when they realized they were “guest-friends”, and Diomedes proclaimed “Let’s not try to kill each other.” Shakespeare was similarly referencing settlement of a conflict.

The modern handshake as a form of greeting is harder to trace. Traditionally, the origins are often given to the Quakers. But as Dutch sociologist Herman Roodenburg - the chief authority for the history of handshaking—wrote in a chapter of an anthology called “A Cultural History of Gesture”, “More than in any other field, that of the study of gesture is one in which the historian has to make the most of only a few clues”.

One of the earliest clues he cites is a 16th-century German translation of the French writer Rabelais’s Gargantua and Pantagruel. When one character meets Gargantua, Rabelais writes (in one modern English translation), “he was greeted with a thousand caresses, a thousand embraces, a thousand good-days”. But according to Roodenburg, the 16th-century German translation adds references to shaking hands. Roodenburg argues that if the translator adapted Rabelais to his audience, that’s an indication for an early handshaking tradition.

There's additional evidence for a handshaking tradition in that era: In 1607 the author James Cleland (believed to have been a Scotsman living in England) proclaimed that instead of things like bowing down to everyone’s shoes and kissing hands, he’d rather “retaine our good olde Scottish shaking of the two right hands togither at meeting with an vncouered head”.

Mr. Answer Man Please Tell Us: When Did Shaking Hands Become a Standard Way of Greeting Someone?

Handshaking - Back to the Future

A popular hypothesis suggests that Cleland’s statements against bowing were actually a wish to go back to a potentially very traditional (though poorly recorded) method of greeting in Europe. As the centuries progressed, handshaking was replaced by more ‘hierarchical’ ways of greeting - like bowing. According to Roodenburg, handshaking survived in a few niches, like in Dutch towns where they’d use the gesture to reconcile after disagreements. Around the same time, the Quakers - who valued equality - also made use of the handshake. Then, as the hierarchies of the continent weakened, the handshake re-emerged as a standard greeting among equals - the way it remains today.

Not everyone fell in love with the handshake, however. According to an article from December 1884, “the usage has found its way into other nations, but so contrary is it to their instinct, that, in France, for example, a society has been recently formed to abolish ‘le shake-hands’ as a vulgar English innovation”.

As for why shaking hands was deemed a good method of greeting, rather than some other gesture, the most popular explanation is that it incapacitates the right hand, making it useless for weapon holding. In the 19th century it was argued that shaking hands without removing gloves was quite rude and required an immediate apology. One 1870 text explains that this “idea would also seem to be an occult remnant of the old notion that the glove might conceal a weapon”.

Sadly, in a world where obscure Rabelais translations provide critical evidence, the true reason may remain forever elusive.

Mental Floss / Wikipedia / National Geographic / History Channel / Quora / Smithsonian / When Did Shaking Hands Become a Standard Way of Greeting Someone? (YouTube) video


NAVSPEAK aka U.S. Navy Slang - U.S. Navy

NAVSPEAK aka U.S. Navy Slang

Q: (prefix denoting)

(1) The BEQ [Bachelor Enlisted Quarters]/Unaccompanied military personnel housing.

(2) The Quartermaster rating.

Quack: Hospital Corpsman.

Quadball: Any sailor with a 0000 NEC. See “Quadzip” below.

Quadzip: Four numeral zero's in a row. Example: 100007 would be read aloud as “one quadzip seven.”

Also refers to sailors who have yet to attend any schools that assign NEC (Navy Enlisted Classification) codes upon graduation. The untrained sailors have a quad zip NEC of 0000.

Quarterdeck: Ceremonial area of the ship used while in port for either boarding, or disembarking the ship, usually found at the main deck level, mid-ship.

Quarter Mile Island: CVN-65, USS Enterprise, and all eight of her reactors.

Quarters: A gathering of all the people in the organization. Quarters can be for the entire command, or just the department, division, or branch. Quarters is used to present awards, pass information, and make every sailor squeeze into their ill-fitting, rarely-worn uniforms at least once a year. “Quarters” also refers to the daily morning muster for each division, announced as “Quarters...Quarters...All hands to Quarters for muster, instruction, and inspection.”

Queer: Nickname for the EA-6B Prowler. Also Air Force Personnel.

Wiktionary.org


Just for MARINES - The Few. The Proud.

Just for you MARINE

QRF: Quick Reaction Force, a highly mobile stand-by force designed to add firepower in precise places as the commander decides on a changing battlefield, often used for MEDEVAC purposes.

Quarter Deck: A location of prominence in a barracks or office; in recruit training, this area by the drill instructor's office is usually off-limits to recruits except during ceremonial discipline;

The term comes from the quarter deck of a ship defined as: “the part of the upper deck abaft the mainmast, including the poop deck when there is one. Usually reserved for ship's officers, guests, and passengers.”

Quarterdeckinge: Incentive training at recruit training by means of repetitive and constant physical exercises, so named because it is usually a recruit's only opportunity to visit the quarter deck.

Quarters: Housing, whether bachelor (barracks) or family (government-leased apartments or houses); or periodic, muster of a ship's company.

Quatrefoil: Quatrefoil in military - Four-pointed embroidered pattern stitched on to the top of a Marine officer's barracks cover, from the tradition of wearing it to be identified as friendly to Marine sharpshooters during boarding actions in the era of wooden sailing ships.

Wikipedia.org


Naval Aviation Squadron Nicknames

Naval Aviation Squadron Nicknames

HSC-3 Helicopter Sea Combat (HSC) Squadron THREE - nicknamed the “Merlins”

United States Navy Naval Air Station - Helicopter Sea Combat (HSC), Naval Air Station North Island, Naval Base Coronado (NBC) in San Diego County, California / Squadron Lineage: HC-3: September 1, 1967 - October 31, 2005 / HSC-3: October 31, 2005 - present.


Where Did That Saying Come From

Where Did That Saying Come From?

Where Did That Saying Come From? “An Englishman's home is his castle”

An Englishman's home is his castle:

Meaning: The English dictum that a man's home is his refuge.

History: The maxim that 'An Englishman's home (or occasionally, house) is his castle' is most often cited these days in articles in the British press that bemoan the apparent undermining of the perceived principle that a man can do as he pleases in his own house, which they hold up as an ancient right. The grumbles centre about the feminist response 'what about Englishwomen?' and the public disquiet about the smacking of children, attacking of intruders etc. The proverb was used in almost all of the articles about the court case of Tony Martin in 2000. Martin was convicted by jury trial of murder, after shooting and killing a 16-year old who had broken into his house in Norfolk, UK.

Did Englishmen actually ever have a unique right to act as they pleased within the walls of their own home? Well, yes and no. Yes, in the sense that it has been a legal precept in England, since at least the 17th century, that no one may enter a home, which would typically then have been in male ownership, unless by invitation. This was established as common law by the lawyer and politician Sir Edward Coke (pronounced Cook), in The Institutes of the Laws of England, 1628:

“For a man's house is his castle, et domus sua cuique est tutissimum refugium [and each man's home is his safest refuge].”

This enshrined into law the popular belief at the time, expressed in print by several authors in the late 16th century:

Henri Estienne's The Stage of Popish Toyes: conteining both tragicall and comicall partes, 1581, includes:

[The English papists owe it to the Queen that] “youre house is youre Castell.”

Judged against the standards of his time, Mulcaster was an enlightened educationalist. His charges were nevertheless terrified of him and he condoned methods in the 'castle' of his school that would result these days in a visit from Social Services. His own experience in castles wasn't that happy either - he was imprisoned for theft in 1555 in the Tower of London and probably tortured into a confession.

What was meant by 'castle' was defined in 1763 by the British Prime Minister with an admirable selection of names to choose from - William Pitt, the first Earl of Chatham, also known as Pitt the Elder:

“The poorest man may in his cottage bid defiance to all the forces of the crown. It may be frail - its roof may shake - the wind may blow through it - the storm may enter - the rain may enter - but the King of England cannot enter.”.

It is clear from the above that the law was established to give householders the right to prevent entry to their homes. Like the 'rule of thumb', which was popularly and mistakenly believed to be the right of a man to beat his wife, the 'Englishman's home is his castle' rule didn't establish a man's right to take actions inside the home that would be illegal outside it.

The principle was exported to the United States where, not unnaturally, the 'Englishman' was removed from the phrase. In 1800, Joel Chandler Harris's biography of Henry W. Grady, the journalist and writer on the US Constitution, included this line:

“Exalt the citizen. As the State is the unit of government he is the unit of the State. Teach him that his home is his castle, and his sovereignty rests beneath his hat.”.

These days, with all the news of banking collapses and mortgage foreclosures, men and women, English or American, might be glad to have somewhere to call home, even if they have to obey the law when inside it.

Phrases.org UK


Science & Technology

Science & Technology

Science & Technology

'Directing' evolution to identify potential drugs earlier in discoveryStudy reveals unique physical, chemical properties of cicada wingsA new material to print mechanically robust and shape-shifting structuresScientists find link between key plant amino acid and essential hormonesBees seeking bacteria: How bees find their microbiome Phys.org / MedicalXpress / TechXplore

Digital hoarders: “Our terabytes are put to use for the betterment of mankind”How the pandemic revived a distributed computing project and made historyAnother NASCAR driver gets in trouble for idiotic behavior in esportsStudy: ‘Oumuamua interstellar object might be remnant of a “super-Earth”The biggest ray-traced game yet: Minecraft RTX Beta debuts April 16 on PC ARS Technica


Bizarre News (we couldn’t make up stuff this good – real news story)

Bizarre News (we couldn’t make up stuff this good - real news story)

New formation theory explains the mysterious interstellar object 'Oumuamua

New formation theory explains the mysterious interstellar object 'Oumuamua

Source: University of California - Santa Cruz

Summary: Since its discovery in 2017, an air of mystery has surrounded the first known interstellar object to visit our solar system, an elongated, cigar-shaped body named 'Oumuamua. How was it formed, and where did it come from? A new study offers a first comprehensive answer to these questions.

How was it formed, and where did it come from? A new study published April 13 in Nature Astronomy offers a first comprehensive answer to these questions.

First author Yun Zhang at the National Astronomical Observatories of the Chinese Academy of Sciences and coauthor Douglas N. C. Lin at the University of California, Santa Cruz, used computer simulations to show how objects like 'Oumuamua can form under the influence of tidal forces like those felt by Earth's oceans. Their formation theory explains all of 'Oumuamua's unusual characteristics.

“We showed that 'Oumuamua-like interstellar objects can be produced through extensive tidal fragmentation during close encounters of their parent bodies with their host stars, and then ejected into interstellar space”, said Lin, professor emeritus of astronomy and astrophysics at UC Santa Cruz.

Discovered on October 19, 2017, by the Panoramic Survey Telescope and Rapid Response System 1 (Pan-STARRS1) in Hawaii, 'Oumuamua is absolutely nothing like anything else in our solar system, according to Zhang. Its dry surface, unusually elongated shape, and puzzling motion even drove some scientists to wonder if it was an alien probe.

“It is really a mysterious object, but some signs, like its colors and the absence of radio emission, point to 'Oumuamua being a natural object”, Zhang said.

“Our objective is to come up with a comprehensive scenario, based on well understood physical principles, to piece together all the tantalizing clues”, Lin said.

Astronomers had expected that the first interstellar object they detected would be an icy body like a comet. Icy objects like those populating the Oort cloud, a reservoir of comets in the outermost reaches of our solar system, evolve at very large distances from their host stars, are rich in volatiles, and are often tossed out of their host systems by gravitational interactions. They are also highly visible due to the sublimation of volatile compounds, which creates a comet's coma (or “tail”) when it is warmed by the sun. 'Oumuamua's dry appearance, however, is similar to rocky bodies like the solar system's asteroids, indicating a different ejection scenario.

Other researchers have calculated that there must be an extremely large population of interstellar objects like 'Oumuamua.

“The discovery of 'Oumuamua implies that the population of rocky interstellar objects is much larger than we previously thought”, Zhang said. “On average, each planetary system should eject in total about a hundred trillion objects like 'Oumuamua. We need to construct a very common scenario to produce this kind of object.”

New formation theory explains the mysterious interstellar object 'Oumuamua

When a smaller body passes very close to a much bigger one, tidal forces of the larger body can tear the smaller one apart, as happened to comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 when it came close to Jupiter. The tidal disruption processes can eject some debris into interstellar space, which has been suggested as a possible origin for 'Oumuamua. But whether such a process could explain 'Oumuamua's puzzling characteristics remained highly uncertain.

Zhang and Lin ran high-resolution computer simulations to model the structural dynamics of an object flying close by a star. They found that if the object comes close enough to the star, the star can tear it into extremely elongated fragments that are then ejected into the interstellar space.

“The elongated shape is more compelling when we considered the variation of material strength during the stellar encounter. The ratio of long axis to short axis can be even larger than ten to one”, Zhang said.

The researchers' thermal modeling showed that the surface of fragments resulting from the disruption of the initial body would melt at a very short distance from the star and recondense at greater distances, thereby forming a cohesive crust that would ensure the structural stability of the elongated shape.

“Heat diffusion during the stellar tidal disruption process also consumes large amounts of volatiles, which not only explains 'Oumuamua's surface colors and the absence of visible coma, but also elucidates the inferred dryness of the interstellar population”, Zhang said. “Nevertheless, some high-sublimation-temperature volatiles buried under the surface, like water ice, can remain in a condensed form.”

Observations of 'Oumuamua showed no cometary activity, and only water ice is a possible outgassing source to account for its non-gravitational motion. If 'Oumuamua was produced and ejected by the scenario of Zhang and Lin, plenty of residual water ice could be activated during its passage through the solar system. The resulting outgassing would cause accelerations that match 'Oumuamua's comet-like trajectory.

“The tidal fragmentation scenario not only provides a way to form one single 'Oumuamua, but also accounts for the vast population of asteroid-like interstellar objects”, Zhang said.

The researchers' calculations demonstrate the efficiency of tidal forces in producing this kind of object. Possible progenitors, including long-period comets, debris disks, and even super-Earths, could be transformed into 'Oumuamua-size pieces during stellar encounters.

This work supports estimates of a large population of 'Oumuamua-like interstellar objects. Since these objects may pass through the domains of habitable zones, the possibility that they could transport matter capable of generating life (called panspermia) cannot be ruled out.

“This is a very new field. These interstellar objects could provide critical clues about how planetary systems form and evolve”, Zhang said.

According to Lin,

“'Oumuamua is just the tip of the iceberg. We anticipate many more interstellar visitors with similar traits will be discovered by future observation with the forthcoming Vera C. Rubin Observatory.”

U.S. Naval Academy astronomer Matthew Knight, who is co-leader of the 'Oumuamua International Space Science Institute team and was not involved in the new study, said this work

“does a remarkable job of explaining a variety of unusual properties of 'Oumuamua with a single, coherent model.”

As future interstellar objects are discovered in coming years, it will be very interesting to see if any exhibit 'Oumuamua-like properties. If so, it may indicate that the processes described in this study are widespread”, Knight said.

Science Daily (04/13/2020) video


© CEASAR CHOPPY by cartoonist Marty Gavin - archives Ceasar Choppy's Navy! “© CEASAR CHOPPY” by Marty Gavin

SONG FACTS

“Running Scared” - Roy Orbison 1961

“Running Scared” video - Roy Orbison
Album: Roy Orbison's Greatest Hits (album)
Released 1961

A song called “Running Scaredvideo delivered in the trembling tones of Roy Orbison sure sounds pretty bleak, especially when he starts singing about the girl's past love and how she still feels for him. At the end, however, we find out that everything works out for the best, and the girl walks away with the singer. Orbison's plaintive voice led many to believe that all his songs were based on misery, but he liked to point out that this one has a happy ending.

Orbison began his career with Sun Records in Memphis, where he was a Rockabilly singer - in 1956 he reached #59 U.S. with

Ooby Dooby” video, recorded with his group The Teen Kings. As a songwriter, he also cracked the charts with

So Long I'm Gonevideo (#72 for Warren Smith in 1957) and

Claudettevideo (#30 in 1958 for The Everly Brothers).

After moving to Monument Records, Orbison went to Nashville and teamed with fellow songwriter Joe Melson. The pair began writing more operatic songs that would become huge hits for Orbison and define his style - songs that “give you an up mood while you're crying”, as Melson put it. Their first major success was

Only The Lonely (Know The Way I Feel)video, which was followed by

Blue Angelvideo,

Up Townvideo,

I'm Hurtin'video and

Running Scaredvideo, which the pair claimed they wrote in just five minutes.

This song, like most of Orbison's hits (“(Oh) Pretty Womanvideo is an exception), was recorded in RCA Studio B in Nashville with the session pros known as “The A-team”. The engineer on these sessions was Bill Porter, who gave this song an exaggerated dynamic range, meaning some parts are very quiet and others are very loud. While most songs of the era had a range of about 3 decibels, Porter said that this one has 24.

This was the last song Roy Orbison ever sung live. His final performance was on December 4, 1988, just two days before his sudden passing, at a Cleveland-area venue. As was his usual habit, Orbison closed the show with “Running Scaredvideo.

Roy Orbison official site / Rock & Roll Hall of Fame / Billboard / All Music / Song Facts / Roy Orbison

Image: “Roy Orbison's Greatest Hits (album)” by Roy Orbison


Trivia

Trivia

● What peg-legged pirate had a parrot named Captain Flint?

Answer to Trivia

● Which European country ruled the Philippine Islands as a colony before 1898?

Answer to Trivia

● In “The Addams Family”, what does Morticia do that always excites Gomez?

Answer to Trivia

● “Viper's Bugloss” is the name of a plant and also the name of which creature?

Answer to Trivia


Jeopardy

A Test for People Who Know Everything

From the Jeopardy Archives Category - “A FISHY SITUATION” ($200)

“In addition to having a pretty nifty weapon as its long upper jaw, this toothless fish can swim up to 60 mph.”

Answer for People Who Do Not Know Everything, or Want to Verify Their Answer Oceana.org

From the Jeopardy Archives Category - “A FISHY SITUATION” ($400)

“The bluefin variety of this food fish can weigh half a ton.”

Answer for People Who Do Not Know Everything, or Want to Verify Their Answer Oceana.org

From the Jeopardy Archives Category - “A FISHY SITUATION” ($600)

“You'd have me down, down, down on my knees now, wouldn't you, this predatory fish here?”

Answer for People Who Do Not Know Everything, or Want to Verify Their Answer Oceana.org

From the Jeopardy Archives Category - “A FISHY SITUATION” ($800)

“This 'body organ' fish breathes out of water using its swim bladder; if held underwater, some will drown.”

Answer for People Who Do Not Know Everything, or Want to Verify Their Answer Oceana.org

From the Jeopardy Archives Category - “A FISHY SITUATION” ($1,000)

“The 'compleat' male type of this fish permanently attaches itself to a female to obtain nutrients & to reproduce.”

Answer for People Who Do Not Know Everything, or Want to Verify Their Answer Oceana.org


Answer to Last Week's Test

From the Jeopardy Archives Category - “NAVY JARGON” ($200)

“Keep your nose clean at sea or enter this 4-letter onboard jail.”

● Answer: The Brig. Navy Times

From the Jeopardy Archives Category - “NAVY JARGON” ($400)

“Yes, sir! A 2 striper is one of these naval officers.”

● Answer: Lieutenant - Triple Stumper. Navy.mil

From the Jeopardy Archives Category - “NAVY JARGON” ($600)

“Skivvies are these; what, you don't like hearts?”

● Answer: Underwear. YouTube

From the Jeopardy Archives Category - “NAVY JARGON” ($800)

“If you've ever swabbed the deck, you know a swab is a large one of these.”

● Answer: a Mop. YouTube

From the Jeopardy Archives Category - “NAVY JARGON” ($1,000)

“For sailors cooped up at sea for months, this type of furlough away from the ship is an important break.”

● Answer: Shore Leave. Wikipedia


Joke of the Day

Joke of the Day

Joke of the Day

“Parking in the Snow”

One winter morning in the frozen north while listening to the radio news, the husband and wife hear the announcer say, “We are going to have 8 to 10 inches of snow today. You must park your car on the even numbered side of the street, so the snowplow can get through.” The wife goes out and moves her car.

A week later, while they were eating breakfast, the radio announcer says, “We are expecting 10 to 12 inches of snow today. You must park your car on the odd numbered side of the street so the snowplow can get through.” The wife goes out and moves her car again.

The next week they are having breakfast again, when the radio announcer says, “We are expecting 12 to 14 inches of snow today. You must park......”, then the electric power goes out.

The wife is very upset and, with a worried look on her face, she says, “Honey, I don' know what to do. Which side of the street do I need to park on so the plow can get through?”

With the love and understanding in the husband's voice, like all the men who are married to blondes exhibit, the husband replies, “Why don't you just leave it in the garage this time.”