Old Sailors' Almanac

THIS WEEK IN HISTORY

Week 33, 2020

Previous Week   August 10, 2020 - August 16, 2020  Next Week

First free flight of the Space Shuttle Enterprise on August 12, 1977

First free flight of the Space Shuttle Enterprise on August 12, 1977

First free flight of the Space Shuttle Enterprise: On August 12, 1977, Space Shuttle Enterprise made its first glided test flight. During the test, she was piggybacked off a modified Boeing 747 airplane and glided safely to the floor of the Mojave Desert. Enterprise, the first orbiter built for the Space Shuttle Program, was used primarily for ground and flight tests within the atmosphere.

A full-scale orbiter prototype, named Enterprise, was built for the Space Shuttle program. Because the vehicle would not be subjected to reentry heating, Enterprise had no need for a thermal protection system. It was not covered with the space shuttle’s reusable surface insulation, but with substitute materials, primarily polyurethane foam and Fiberglas.

First free flight of the Space Shuttle Enterprise on August 12, 1977

The flight deck had two crew stations for the commander and pilot. Aerodynamic controls included a body flap at the aft end, elevons and a split rudder that doubled as a speed brake. Reaction control systems, unnecessary at low altitude, were not installed. For the captive flights and the first three free flights, an aerodynamic fairing covered the orbiter’s aft end. Three dummy main engines were installed for the final two flights to simulate weight and aerodynamic characteristics of an operational orbiter.

NASA selected two two-man orbiter crews for the flight tests of the Enterprise: Fred W. Haise Jr. (commander) and C. Gordon Fullerton (pilot), and Joe H. Engle (commander) and Richard H. Truly (pilot). Crewmembers for the 747 SCA included pilots Fitzhugh L. Fulton Jr. and Thomas C. McMurtry and flight engineers Victor W. Horton, Thomas E. Guidry Jr., William R. Young and Vincent A. Alvarez.

The initial testing period named Approach and Landing Test (ALT) included a flight on February 18, 1977 atop a Shuttle Carrier Aircraft (SCA) to measure structural loads and ground handling and braking characteristics of the mated system. Five flights with the inert, unmanned shuttle orbiter of the 747 as a transport vehicle for the shuttle and established an operational flight envelope for Approach and Landing Test operations.

These were followed by three captive-active flights, with Enterprise powered up and crew in its cockpit to test controls and other functions. The final phase of the ALT program comprised five free flights in which the orbiter was released from the SCA and glided to a landing at Edwards. Three of these were made with the aerodynamic tailcone on the orbiter, but the last two were made with the tailcone replaced by dummy engines in an effort to replicate actual flight conditions that would be experienced by a shuttle orbiter returning from space.

First free flight of the Space Shuttle Enterprise on August 12, 1977

Except for the last free flight, Enterprise landed on runways laid out on the vast expanse of Rogers Dry Lake.The final flight ended on the 15,000-foot concrete runway at Edwards AFB, an important demonstration of precision landing capabilities necessary for later operational mission.

The ALT program demonstrated the orbiter’s capability for safe approach and landing after an orbital flight from space. It also validated crucial on board control systems necessary for the shuttle program’s next step: the launch of Columbia on the first shuttle mission into space on April 12, 1981.

NASA / Wikipedia / Encyclopedia Britannica / NASA Space Flight / Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum / Boeing / Space Flight Insider / First free flight of the Space Shuttle Enterprise on August 12, 1977 (YouTube) video

“This Day in History”

This Day in History August 12

• 1099 First Crusade: Battle of Ascalon: Crusaders under the command of Godfrey of Bouillon defeat Fatimid forces led by Al-Afdal Shahanshah - This is considered the last engagement of the First Crusade.

• 1492 Christopher Columbus arrives in the Canary Islands on his first voyage to the New World.

• 1806 First British invasion: Santiago de Liniers, 1st Count of Buenos Aires re-takes the city of Buenos Aires, Argentina.

• 1851 Isaac Singer is granted a patent for his sewing machine.

• 1865 Joseph Lister, British surgeon and scientist, performs 1st antiseptic surgery.

• 1898 The Hawaiian flag is lowered from ʻIolani Palace in an elaborate annexation ceremony and replaced with the flag of the United States to signify the transfer of sovereignty from the Republic of Hawaii to the United States.

• 1914 World War I: The United Kingdom declares war on Austria-Hungary; the countries of the British Empire follow suit.

• 1914 World War I: Battle of Halen: The United Kingdom declares war on Austria-Hungary; the countries of the British Empire follow suit.

• 1944 World War II: Sant'Anna di Stazzema massacre: Waffen-SS troops massacre 560 people in Sant'Anna di Stazzema.

• 1944 World War II: Wola massacre: Nazi German troops end the week-long massacre, during which time at least 40,000 people are killed indiscriminately or in mass executions.

• 1944 World War II: Alençon is liberated by General Philippe Leclerc de Hauteclocque, the first city in France to be liberated from the Nazis by French forces.

• 1948 Babrra massacre: About 600 unarmed members of the Khudai Khidmatgar movement are shot dead on the orders of the Chief Minister of the North-West Frontier Province, Abdul Qayyum Khan Kashmiri.

• 1950 Korean War: Bloody Gulch massacre: 75 American POWs are massacred by North Korean Army.

• 1952 Night of the Murdered Poets: Thirteen prominent Jewish intellectuals are murdered in Moscow, Russia, Soviet Union.

• 1953 Soviet atomic bomb project: The first testing of a real Soviet thermonuclear weapon.

• 1976 Lebanese Civil War: Tel al-Zaatar massacre: Between 1,000 and 3,500 Palestinians are killed.

• 1977 Approach and Landing Tests: The first free flight of the Space Shuttle Enterprise.

• 1981 IBM Personal Computer is released.

• 1985 Japan Airlines Flight 123 crashes into Osutaka ridge in Japan, killing 520, to become the worst single-plane air disaster.

• 2000 Kursk submarine disaster: The Russian Navy submarine Kursk explodes and sinks in the Barents Sea.


Understanding Military Terminology: At the Marine Corps Museum: Norman Rockwell's “The War Hero”

Understanding Military Terminology

Outer Transport Area

(DOD) In amphibious operations, an area inside the antisubmarine screen to which assault transports proceed initially after arrival in the objective area.

See also Inner transport area; transport area.

Joint Publications (JP 3-02) Joint Doctrine for Amphibious Operations

Outsized Cargo

A single item that exceeds 1,000 inches long by 117 inches wide by 105 inches high in any one dimension.

See also Oversized Cargo.

Joint Publications (JP 4-01.6) Joint Logistics


“The Odyssey”

The Old Salt’s Corner

“The Odyssey”

Book XIV

Ulysses now left the haven, and took the rough track up through the wooded country and over the crest of the mountain till he reached the place where Minerva had said that he would find the swineherd, who was the most thrifty servant he had. He found him sitting in front of his hut, which was by the yards that he had built on a site which could be seen from far. He had made them spacious and fair to see, with a free ran for the pigs all round them; he had built them during his master's absence, of stones which he had gathered out of the ground, without saying anything to Penelope or Laertes, and he had fenced them on top with thorn bushes. Outside the yard he had run a strong fence of oaken posts, split, and set pretty close together, while inside lie had built twelve sties near one another for the sows to lie in. There were fifty pigs wallowing in each sty, all of them breeding sows; but the boars slept outside and were much fewer in number, for the suitors kept on eating them, and die swineherd had to send them the best he had continually. There were three hundred and sixty boar pigs, and the herdsman's four hounds, which were as fierce as wolves, slept always with them. The swineherd was at that moment cutting out a pair of sandals from a good stout ox hide. Three of his men were out herding the pigs in one place or another, and he had sent the fourth to town with a boar that he had been forced to send the suitors that they might sacrifice it and have their fill of meat.

When the hounds saw Ulysses they set up a furious barking and flew at him, but Ulysses was cunning enough to sit down and loose his hold of the stick that he had in his hand: still, he would have been torn by them in his own homestead had not the swineherd dropped his ox hide, rushed full speed through the gate of the yard and driven the dogs off by shouting and throwing stones at them. Then he said to Ulysses, “Old man, the dogs were likely to have made short work of you, and then you would have got me into trouble. The gods have given me quite enough worries without that, for I have lost the best of masters, and am in continual grief on his account. I have to attend swine for other people to eat, while he, if he yet lives to see the light of day, is starving in some distant land. But come inside, and when you have had your fill of bread and wine, tell me where you come from, and all about your misfortunes.”

On this the swineherd led the way into the hut and bade him sit down. He strewed a good thick bed of rushes upon the floor, and on the top of this he threw the shaggy chamois skin- a great thick one- on which he used to sleep by night. Ulysses was pleased at being made thus welcome, and said “May Jove, sir, and the rest of the gods grant you your heart's desire in return for the kind way in which you have received me.”

To this you answered, O swineherd Eumaeus, “Stranger, though a still poorer man should come here, it would not be right for me to insult him, for all strangers and beggars are from Jove. You must take what you can get and be thankful, for servants live in fear when they have young lords for their masters; and this is my misfortune now, for heaven has hindered the return of him who would have been always good to me and given me something of my own- a house, a piece of land, a good looking wife, and all else that a liberal master allows a servant who has worked hard for him, and whose labour the gods have prospered as they have mine in the situation which I hold. If my master had grown old here he would have done great things by me, but he is gone, and I wish that Helen's whole race were utterly destroyed, for she has been the death of many a good man. It was this matter that took my master to Ilius, the land of noble steeds, to fight the Trojans in the cause of kin Agamemnon.”

“The Odyssey” - Book XIV continued ...

~ Homer

Written 800 B.C.E

Translated by Samuel Butler

“The Odyssey” - Table Of Contents


“I’m Just Sayin’”

“I’m Just Sayin”

“In a time of universal deceit,

telling the truth is a revolutionary act.”

“We sleep safe in our beds

because rough men stand ready in the night to visit violence on those who would do us harm.”

“No advance in wealth,

no softening of manners,

no reform or revolution

has ever brought human equality a millimeter nearer.”

~ George Orwell


“Thought for the Day”

“Thought for the Day”

“Watch what people are cynical about,

and one can often discover what they lack.”

“Nobody ever defended anything successfully,

tell them what to do and let them surprise you with their results.”

“Battle is the most magnificent competition in which a human being can indulge.

It brings out all that is best;

it removes all that is base.

All men are afraid in battle.

The coward is the one who lets his fear overcome his sense of duty.

Duty is the essence of manhood.”

~ George S. Patton


“What I Have Learned”

“What I Learned”

“Doing nothing is the hardest work of all.”

“A good way to judge people is by observing how they treat those who can do them absolutely no good.”

“People who think they know it all are especially annoying to those of us who do.”

~ Anonymous


Second Hand News

Second Hand News: Articles from Week 332 - August 10, 2020 - August 16, 2020

Top News Stories - Photos (Washington Examiner) Democrats increase coronavirus spending demand to $3.7 trillion U.S. sanctions Chinese Communist Party leaders in Hong KongGovernor Andrew Cuomo says New York schools will open in the fall

Liberal group sends mail-in ballot apps to voters - many with errorsTrump signs order banning transactions with TikTok in 45 daysBiden issues clarification: 'In no way did I mean to suggest' black Americans are 'a monolith'

MOST READ: Trump to sign executive orders cutting payroll tax and extending jobless benefitsPortland fines DHS $672,000, $48,000 a day, for protecting federal courthouseMaria Bartiromo on Biden: ‘There's a gaffe every day, there's clearly a cognitive issue' Washington Examiner

Top News Stories - Photos (The Federalist) Why Bombing Hiroshima Was The Moral Thing To DoDirector Of Feminist Film ‘Dollhouse’: ‘I Actually Didn’t Feel As Exploited Being A Stripper As I Do As A Screenwriter’The Insanity Of Cancel Culture And Media Narratives

Trump Lays Out 6 Promises For America In His Second TermUnlike California, New York To Open Schools For In-Person LearningsHouse Republicans Pledge To Appeal Judge’s Dismissal Of Proxy Voting Case

MOST READ: Teachers Unions Are Attempting Political Blackmail - It’s Time To Break Them UpJoe Biden’s Capitulation To The Crazy Left Is Alienating Democrats Like MeDemocrats Claim Stopping Two Months Of Portland Rioting Is An ‘Attack On Democracy’

Sally Yates’ Testimony Showed She’s Either Ignorant Or Lying About RussiagateBiden Asks Black Reporter If He’s A Junkie On CocaineTwitter Appears To Censor Joe Rogan Episode With Gender Expert Debra Soh

1.5 Million Sign Petition To Shut Down Pornhub For Child Pornography, Sexual Abuse The Federalist

Top News Stories - Photos (CORRUPTION CHRONICLES - Mainstream Media Scream: (Watch Dog On-Line Publications) CORRUPTION CHRONICLES: Judicial Watch Sues for Health & Human Services (HHS) Records of Sales of Unusable Respirator Masks to the Indian Health Service

“Investigating the Investigators:” Judicial Watch: Susan Rice Admits Under Oath She Emailed with Hillary Clinton on Clinton’s Non-Government Email System and Received Emails Related to Government Business on Her Own Personal Email Account

Virus Update: The FDA & The War Over Hydroxychloroquine (HC) Judicial Watch

OUTING FAKE NEWS OMISSIONS and DISTORTIONS: ‘It’s a Peaceful Protest:’ Trump NUKES WashPost Hack Concerned About Press Conference CrowdHere's the Other Hard-Left, Extreme Biden Quotes the Media Are BURYING Covering for Biden: Networks Practically Ignore Intel Finding Iran Wants Biden to Win

The Horse Is Dead: Desperate Dems at MSNBC Still Crying Collusion MSNBC’s Joy Reid - Joy-Filled Lies: Reid Claims Trump Purposefully Won’t Fight Virus, Was Banned from TwitterColumn: DEFUND PBS Anchor Judy Woodruff Adores Democrat Wives, Hates Republican Wives News Busters

Why Do Cats Leave Their Mouths Open After Smelling Something? Mr. Answer Man Please Tell Us: Why Do Cats Leave Their Mouths Open After Smelling Something?

Why does a cat smell something and then keep its mouth open for what seems like an abnormally long amount of time? It’s called the flehmen response, a.k.a. “stinky face”. As kitten rescuer Hannah Shaw writes on Instagram, it’s “a cat’s way of analyzing an unfamiliar and interesting scent. The flehmen response allows the scent to travel to the vomeronasal organ on the roof of the mouth.” Also called Jacobson’s organ, the vomeronasal organ is a region of sensory cells within the olfactory system of mammals, amphibians, and reptiles.

Though the cat is contorting its furry face into a strange expression, it's just actually pulling back its upper lip. The cat uses its mouth, not nose, to suck in air and filter it into the vomeronasal area. Scientists think the sensory information moving through the vomeronasal organ falls somewhere between the sense of smell and taste. Dogs have these receptors, too, but the average cat has 30 kinds of receptors while a dog has only nine. Big cats like lions and tigers also exhibit the flehmen response.

Similar to the flehman response is the blep—a cat's adorable habit of not quite retracting its tongue all the way. Here, the cat is “smelling” its environment by collecting pheromones that are passed to the vomeronasal organ. It might look silly and cute like a flehman response, but cats do it for a reason.

Male felines are more likely to make the face than females, but the latter uses the method to keep track of their kittens. “Male cats use the flehmen response in relation to mating”, veterinarian Sasha Gibbons told Catster. “Scents can help indicate compatibility and if timing is right.” Neutered male cats are known to exhibit the flehmen response without having mating in mind.

Science Magazine AAAS.org / Wikipedia / Encyclopedia Britannica / Mental Floss / Quora / Why Do Cats Leave Their Mouths Open After Smelling Something? (YouTube) video


NAVSPEAK aka U.S. Navy Slang - U.S. Navy

NAVSPEAK aka U.S. Navy Slang

On my six: Naval aviation expression referring to having someone or thing at my back, on my tail, directly behind me, relative to the hours of a clock;

12-dead ahead,

3-starboard or to the right,

6 aft or behind and

9-port or to the left.

O-N-O-F-F actuator (or switch): The on/off button or switch on any device, usually used in the context of a subordinate not grasping how to power a device up or down.

One-eyed Jack: See “Barney Clark” - A tasty treat served at midrats consisting of a slider topped with a fried egg.

OOC: Pronounced “Oh Oh See”. Used to describe a piece of equipment that no longer functions and is “out of commission”.

OOD: Officer of the deck.

Operation GOLDENFLOW: A command-wide urinalysis test.

Wiktionary.org


Just for MARINES - The Few. The Proud.

Just for you MARINE

OMPF: Official Military Personnel File, a record of all awards, punishments, training, and other records compiled by Headquarters Marine Corps.

Oorah: Oorah Spirited cry used since the mid-20th century, comparable to Hooah used in the Army or Hooyah by Navy SEALs; most commonly used to respond to a verbal greeting or as an expression of enthusiasm. The origin is often disputed.

OP: Observation Post, a position used for reconnaissance; also, the post newspaper of Marine Corps Air Ground Combat Center Twentynine Palms.

Wikipedia.org


Naval Aviation Squadron Nicknames

Naval Aviation Squadron Nicknames

HSM-75 Helicopter Maritime Strike (HSM) Squadron SEVEN FIVE - nicknamed the “Wolfpack”

United States Navy Naval Air Station - Naval Air Station North Island - Naval Base Coronado - San Diego, California / Coronado, California / Helicopter Maritime Strike Squadron - Squadron Lineage: HSL-45 October 3, 1986 - February 2011 / HSM-75: February 2011 - present.


Where Did That Saying Come From

Where Did That Saying Come From?

Where Did That Saying Come From? “Red sky at night shepherd's delight; Red sky in the morning, shepherd's warning”

Red sky at night shepherd's delight; Red sky in the morning, shepherd's warning:

Meaning: This is the first part of the weather-lore rhyme:

“Red sky at night; shepherds delight,

Red sky in the morning; shepherds warning”.

Sometimes the phrase involves sailors rather than shepherds - both have a more than usual interest in the weather.

History: The saying is very old and quite likely to have been passed on by word of mouth for some time before it was ever written down. There is a written version in Matthew XVI in the Wyclif Bible, from as early as 1395:

It has been in use in the English speaking world since the 16th century. An early example of it in print is found in Erasmus' Lytle Treatise Maner & Forme of Confession, 1535:

“The eeuenynge maad, ye seien, It shal be cleer, for the heuene is lijk to reed; and the morwe, To day tempest, for heuen shyneth heuy, or sorwful.”

The Authorised Version gives that in a more familiar form:

“When it is evening, ye say, It will be fair weather: for the sky is red. And in the morning, It will be foul weather to day: for the sky is red and louring.”

There are many later citations of the saying in literature, including this from Shakespeare, in Venus & Adonis, 1593:

“Like a red morn, that ever yet betoken'd wreck to the seaman - sorrow to shepherds.”

There are many proverbs and stories concerning the weather from medieval England; for example, the notion that the weather on St. Swithin's Day (15th July) predicts the weather in England for the next 40 days:

“St Swithin's Day, if it does rain

Full forty days, it will remain

St Swithin's Day, if it be fair

For forty days, t'will rain no more.”

This prediction is nonsense and the weather on that day has no more significance than any other.

When rhymes like that were established England had a primarily rural and maritime economy and weather was consequently of life and death importance. There was no accurate means of forecasting the weather, so the tendency to make the most of what little information they had to go on, and occasionally to put two and two together and make five, is hardly surprising.

The 'red sky at night' rhyme is more than an old wives' tale though and has some meteorological foundation - in England at least.

To explain why we'll need to know why clouds sometimes appear red and how that may be used to predict the weather. Firstly, why do clouds often appear red in the morning and evening?

● Sunlight is broken into the familiar rainbow spectrum of varying-wavelength colours as it passes through the atmosphere.

● The blue/violet end of the spectrum is diverted more than the red/orange.

(This is the same mechanism that causes us to see the sky as blue incidentally, but that's getting rather off our point)

● When the sun is low in the sky, at dawn and dusk, sunlight travels through more atmosphere than at other times of day. The red wavelength is better able to go on a direct course and be reflected back off clouds, whereas the blue light is more scattered before reaching the cloud and is therefore less visible. So, we see the clouds as red as the light that is reaching them is primarily red.

...and how does that help predict the weather?

● The weather in the UK comes from the west, that is, the wind is primarily westerly.

● The sun rises in the east and sets in the west.

● If there is broken cloud in the morning we may look to the west and see red light reflecting back from the cloud, that is, 'red sky in the morning'. As the clouds are coming towards us there must be a chance of rain, at least an increased chance compared with the cloudless period we had just enjoyed.

● Likewise for 'red sky at night'. If we see red clouds in the evening they will be in the east and have already passed us by, giving a good chance of clear skies and fine weather ahead.

Phrases.org UK


Science & Technology

Science & Technology

Science & Technology

AVID: a framework to enhance imitation learning in robotsThe case of the elusive Majorana: The so-called 'angel particle' is still a mysteryGiant Metrewave Radio Telescope (GMRT) discovers a gigantic ring of hydrogen gas around a distant galaxyEvidence suggests ancient impact crater buried under Bolaven volcanic field Phys.org / MedicalXpress / TechXplore

Superior pinpoints racism in science: Naive scientists plus strategic racistsAcademic paper in comic form explores ethics of treating torturer with PTSDChina and the United States will compete for launch supremacy in 2020This time, for sure! Ars Technica’s 2020 Deathwatch ARS Technica


Bizarre News (we couldn’t make up stuff this good – real news story)

Bizarre News (we couldn’t make up stuff this good - real news story)

Dogs process numerical quantities in similar brain region as humans

Dogs process numerical quantities in similar brain region as humans

Source: Emory Health Sciences

Summary: The results of a new canine numerosity study suggests that a common neural mechanism has been deeply conserved across mammalian evolution.

Biology Letters published the results, which suggest that a common neural mechanism has been deeply conserved across mammalian evolution.

“Our work not only shows that dogs use a similar part of their brain to process numbers of objects as humans do - it shows that they don't need to be trained to do it”, says Gregory Berns, Emory professor of psychology and senior author of the study.

“Understanding neural mechanisms - both in humans and across species - gives us insights into both how our brains evolved over time and how they function now”, says co-author Stella Lourenco, an associate professor of psychology at Emory.

Astronomers have wondered how supermassive black holes were able to grow so large so early on in the history of the Universe. “The presence of these early monsters, with masses several billion times the mass of our Sun, is a big mystery”, says Farina, who is also affiliated with the Max Planck Institute for Astrophysics in Garching bei München. It means that the first black holes, which might have formed from the collapse of the first stars, must have grown very fast. But, until now, astronomers had not spotted 'black hole food' - gas and dust - in large enough quantities to explain this rapid growth.

Such insights, Lourenco adds, may one day lead to practical applications such as treating brain abnormalities and improving artificial intelligence systems.

Lauren Aulet, a PhD candidate in Lourenco's lab, is first author of the study.

Dogs process numerical quantities in similar brain region as humans

The study used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to scan dogs' brains as they viewed varying numbers of dots flashed on a screen. The results showed that the dogs' parietotemporal cortex responded to differences in the number of the dots. The researchers held the total area of the dots constant, demonstrating that it was the number of the dots, not the size, that generated the response.

The approximate number system supports the ability to rapidly estimate a quantity of objects in a scene, such as the number of predators approaching or the amount of food available for foraging. Evidence suggests that humans primarily draw on their parietal cortex for this ability, which is present even in infancy.

This basic sensitivity to numerical information, known as numerosity, does not rely on symbolic thought or training and appears to be widespread throughout the animal kingdom. Much of the research in non-humans, however, has involved intensive training of the subjects.

Previous research, for example, has found that particular neurons in the parietal cortex of monkeys are attuned to numerical values. Such studies had not clarified whether numerosity is a spontaneous system in non-human primates, because the subjects underwent many trials and received rewards for selecting scenes with greater numbers of dots in preparation for the experiments.

Behavioral studies in dogs that were trained in the task of discriminating between different quantities of objects have also indicated that dogs are sensitive to numerosity.

The Emory researchers wanted to delve further into the neural underpinnings of canine number perception using fMRI.

Berns is founder of the Dog Project, which is researching evolutionary questions surrounding man's best, and oldest friend. The project was the first to train dogs to voluntarily enter an fMRI scanner and remain motionless during scanning, without restraint or sedation.

Dogs process numerical quantities in similar brain region as humans

Lourenco primarily researches human visual perception, cognition and development.

Eleven dogs of varying breeds were involved in the current fMRI experiments. The dogs did not receive advance training in numerosity. After entering the fMRI, they passively viewed dot arrays that varied in numerical value. Eight of the 11 dogs showed greater activation in the parietotemporal cortex when the ratio between alternating dot arrays was more dissimilar than when the numerical values were constant.

“We went right to the source, observing the dogs' brains, to get a direct understanding of what their neurons were doing when the dogs viewed varying quantities of dots”, Aulet says. “That allowed us to bypass the weaknesses of previous behavioral studies of dogs and some other species.”

Humans and dogs are separated by 80 million years of evolution, Berns notes.

“Our results provide some of the strongest evidence yet that numerosity is a shared neural mechanism that goes back at least that far”, he says.

Unlike dogs and other animals, humans are able to build on basic numerosity in order to do more complex math, drawing primarily on the prefrontal cortex.

“Part of the reason that we are able to do calculus and algebra is because we have this fundamental ability for numerosity that we share with other animals”, Aulet says. “I'm interested in learning how we evolved that higher math ability and how these skills develop over time in individuals, starting with basic numerosity in infancy.”

Additional authors of the study include Veronica Chiu and Ashley Prichard, Emory graduate students in psychology, and Mark Spivak, CEO of Comprehensive Pet Therapy. Spivak and Berns co-founded Dog Star Technologies to develop techniques to study how dogs perceive the world.

The work was supported by the National Institutes of Health, the John Merck Fund and the Office of Naval Research.

Science Daily (12/18/2019) video


Second Hand News

Second Hand News: Articles from Week 332 - August 10, 2020 - August 16, 2020

Top News Stories - Photos (Daily Mail) President Trump vows to extend unemployment benefits until 2021, suspend months of payroll taxes and student loan payments and blasts Democrats for holding COVID relief 'hostage' after Congress stimulus talks collapsed Trump insists neither Russia OR China want him to win: President rejects election intelligence report that Moscow is helping his campaign and says Beijing would 'own our country' under Biden

Protesters pelt Portland Police with rocks and concrete and shine lasers to try and blind cops on the 72nd night of violent clashes after Trump called the demonstrators 'lawless rioters'Homeless men are seen brazenly sharing swigs of liquor without masks and urinating on the street outside luxury Upper West Side hotels - as it's revealed New York 'illegally housed pedophiles next to playgrounds' in the neighborhood

REVEALED: U.S. Postal Service lost $2.2 BILLION in three months during the pandemic - but postmaster general vows agency WILL be ready for election mail in NovemberU.S. intelligence warns that Russia is taking measures to 'denigrate' Joe Biden while China is rooting against President Donald Trump - in new interference flag three months before the elections Daily Mail

Top News Stories - Photos (Daily Mail) Revisionist History: The New Left and the Revision of American HistoryTrump Seizes Opportunity After Biden Gaffe: Biden ‘No Longer Worthy Of The Black Vote’eChina Working To Ensure Trump ‘Does Not Win Re-Election’, Most Top Threats Want Him Out, U.S. Officials Say

Police: Rape Suspect Gets Released From Jail Over COVID, Allegedly Murders His AccuserHouse Speaker Nancy Pelosi Flips On PBS News Hour anchor Judy Woodruff, Accuses Her Of Being An ‘Advocate’ For RepublicansReport: Michigan Governor Gretchen Whitmer Traveled To Visit Biden Ahead Of Upcoming VP DecisionQuarantine For Thee, Not For Me Daily Wire

Top News Stories - Photos (John Batchelor)

Suddenly discovering that Clinton's agent Steele had a source, Danchenko, who travelled to Petersburg and Moscow in 2016: “How hysterical is it that now we know that we had a paid operative where? Russia! Russia! Doing what? Digging up dirt on what? OH!” audio  
The Barr/Bash inquiry about the Obama Administration abuse of surveillance likely reaches back to the first term. audio  
August 17, 2016 was not a "Defensive briefing" of Candidate Trump by FBI agent Joe Pientka. audio  

The President disciplines the untrusted Communist China; The President inclines to payroll and stimulus relief by Executive Order. audio  

#PacificWatch: The decline and fall of San Francisco creates the Meth Lab Hotel audio  

Asia's New Geopolitics: 1of4: Essays on Reshaping the Indo-Pacific audio   2 of 4 audio   3 of 4 audio   4 of 4 audio  

Imbeciles audio   2 of 4 audio   3 of 4 audio   4 of 4 audio   John Batchelor (08/10/2020)

© CEASAR CHOPPY by cartoonist Marty Gavin - archives Ceasar Choppy's Navy! “© CEASAR CHOPPY” by Marty Gavin

SONG FACTS

“Gloria” - Them 1965

“Here Comes The Night” - Them
Album: The Angry Young Them
Released 1965 video

All For Myself

Here Comes The Nightvideo was written by Bert Berns and was released as a single in 1965 with “All For Myselfvideo as the B-side. It was the biggest hit for Them, who were from Belfast, Ireland but still considered part of the “British Invasion”.

Van Morrison was Them's lead singer. He left the band in 1966 to pursue a solo career, and Them changed their name to The Belfast Gypsies and released one album before reverting back to their original name. They released four more albums before splitting.

Bert Berns (a.k.a. Bert Russell) was a talented songwriter and producer whose life was tragically cut short in 1967 at the age of 38 by a fatal heart attack.

Some of the other groups to record the song include:

Twist And Shoutvideo (Isley Brothers video, The Beatles video)

Hang On Sloopyvideo (The McCoys)

Piece Of My Heartvideo (Erma Franklin video, Janis Joplin video)

Tell Himvideo (The Exciters)

Bert Berns production credits include:

Brown Eyed Girlvideo (Van Morrison)

Under The Boardwalkvideo (The Drifters)

Van Morrison official site / Rock & Roll Hall of Fame / Billboard / All Music / Song Facts / Them

Image: “Here Comes The Night (album)” by Them


Trivia

Trivia

● Today you can buy this handy small item item for less than $1, but when Hungarian Laszlo Biro invented it in 1938, it was a revolutionary advance in the field of communication. What is it?

Answer to Trivia

● In the U.S., most cars are, of course, built in the Detroit area. Which city, about 450 miles from Detroit, is second in automobile manufacturing?is represented by the phrase 'two little ducks'?

Answer to Trivia

● The largest adobe building in the United States and the oldest building in the U.S., 800 years old, are both located in which city?

Answer to Trivia

● How many psalms are there in the Book of Psalms? within 10%

Answer to Trivia


Jeopardy

A Test for People Who Know Everything

From the Jeopardy Archives Category - “LIVE 'LONG'” ($200)

“The current record in this event has lasted 24 years (29 feet, 4.4 inches).”

Answer for People Who Do Not Know Everything, or Want to Verify Their Answer World Athletics.org

From the Jeopardy Archives Category - “LIVE 'LONG'” ($400)

“One degree of it is equal to about 69 miles at the equator.”

Answer for People Who Do Not Know Everything, or Want to Verify Their Answer National Geographic.org

From the Jeopardy Archives Category - “LIVE 'LONG'” ($800)

“This literary character has a parrot named Cap'n Flint.”

Answer for People Who Do Not Know Everything, or Want to Verify Their Answer Gutenberg.org

From the Jeopardy Archives Category - “PROSPER” ($800)

“He quit school at age 11 &, as a teen in 1810, bought his first boat; later, as a 'commodore', he'd be worth $100 million.”

Answer for People Who Do Not Know Everything, or Want to Verify Their Answer New Netherland Institute.org

From the Jeopardy Archives Category - “PROSPER” ($1,000)

“In English the name of this Mexican magnate means thin, but his wallet is fat--he & his family are worth $75 billion.”

Answer for People Who Do Not Know Everything, or Want to Verify Their Answer Forbes


Answer to Last Week's Test

From the Jeopardy Archives Category - “KNOWLEDGE” ($200)

“This curve is a representation of progress in gaining knowledge measured vs. the time required to achieve mastery.”

● Answer: The Learning Curve. Harvard Business Review

From the Jeopardy Archives Category - “KNOWLEDGE” ($400)

“The King James Bible says, 'of the tree of the knowledge of' these two opposites, 'thou shalt not eat'.”

● Answer: Good & Evil. Psychology Today

From the Jeopardy Archives Category - “KNOWLEDGE” ($600)

“Donald Rumsfeld said 'There are' this contradictory pair, 'that is... we know there are things we do not know'.”

● Answer: The Known Unknown. Wikipedia

From the Jeopardy Archives Category - “KNOWLEDGE” ($800)

“The name of this basic branch of learning is from the Latin for 'to know'.”

● Answer: Triple Stumper (What is philosophy?) Science Triple Stumper. Wikipedia

From the Jeopardy Archives Category - “KNOWLEDGE” ($1,000)

“Don't gnash your teeth; just gname this early Christian sect whose name means 'pertaining to knowledge'.”

● Answer: Gnostic. Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy


Joke of the Day

Joke of the Day

Joke of the Day

“LAWYER JOKES”

How does an attorney sleep? Well, first he lies on one side, then he lies on the other.

You’ve heard that one, along with a million other lawyer jokes that people have sprung on you from the moment you first announced you were going to school to be a paralegal. Some of them probably even get told around the law office. Even lawyers like to laugh and there are a lot of aspects of legal practice that are ripe for a little deadpan humor.

ParalegalEDU.org

Joke of the Day

“Court of Less Appeal”

Justice isn’t just blind - it’s snickering at these real courtroom give-and-takes:

Judge (to young witness): “Do you know what would happen to you if you told a lie?”

Witness: “Yes. I would go to hell.”

Judge : “Is that all?”

Witness: “Isn’t that enough?”

Judge: “Isn’t it a fact that you have been running around with another woman?”

Witness: “Yes, it is, but you can’t prove it!”

Judge: “Have you ever heard about taking the Fifth?”

Witness: “A fifth of wine?”

Judge: “What did your sister die of?”

Judge: “No, the Fifth Amendment.”

Witness: “You would have to ask her. I would be speculating if I told you.”