Joan of Arc arrives to relieve the Siege of Orléans on April 29, 1429
Joan of Arc arrives to relieve the Siege of Orléans: During the Hundred Years’ War, the 17-year-old French peasant Joan of Arc leads a French force in relieving the city of Orleans, besieged by the English since October.
At the age of 16, “voices” of Christian saints told Joan to aid Charles, the French dauphin, in gaining the French throne and expelling the English from France. Convinced of the validity of her divine mission, Charles furnished Joan with a small force of troops.She led her troops to Orleans, and on April 29, as a French sortie distracted the English troops on the west side of the city, Joan entered unopposed by its eastern gate.
Bringing needed supplies and troops into the besieged city, she also inspired the French to a passionate resistance and through the next week led the charge during a number of skirmishes and battles. On one occasion, she was even hit by an arrow, but after dressing her wounds she returned to the battle. On May 8, the siege of Orleans was broken, and the English retreated.
During the next five weeks, Joan led French forces into a number of stunning victories over the English, and Reims, the traditional city of coronation, was captured in July. Later that month, Charles VII was crowned king of France, with Joan of Arc kneeling at his feet.
In May 1430, while leading another military expedition against the English occupiers of France, Bourguignon soldiers captured Joan and sold her to the English, who tried her for heresy. She was tried as a heretic and witch, convicted, and on May 30, 1431, burned at the stake at Rouen. In 1920, Joan of Arc, already one of the great heroes of French history, was recognized as a Christian saint by the Roman Catholic Church.
History Channel / Wikipedia / Encyclopedia Britannica /
Texas State Library Archives Commission.gov / National Parks Service.gov / San Jacinto Museum.org /
Joan of Arc arrives to relieve the Siege of Orléans on April 29, 1429 (YouTube)
Understanding Military Terminology
(DOD) Intelligence that is required for planning and conducting campaigns and major operations to accomplish strategic objectives within theaters or operational areas.
See also Intelligence; Strategic Intelligence; Tactical Intelligence.
Joint Publications (JP 2-0) Joint Intelligence - Federation Of American Scientists
Operational Level of War
The level of war at which campaigns and major operations are planned, conducted, and sustained to achieve strategic objectives within theaters or other operational areas.
See also Strategic Level of War; Tactical Level of War.
Joint Publications (JP 3-0) Joint Operations - Federation Of American Scientists
An action required or prohibited by higher authority, such as a constraint or a restraint, and other restrictions that limit the commander’s freedom of action, such as diplomatic agreements, rules of engagement, political and economic conditions in affected countries, and host nation issues.
See also Constraint; Restraint.
Joint Publications (JP 5-0) Joint Planning - Federation Of American Scientists
The Old Salt’s Corner
“The Sailor Boy”
He rose at dawn and, fired with hope,
Shot o’er the seething harbour-bar,
And reach’d the ship and caught the rope,
And whistled to the morning star.
And while he whistled long and loud
He heard a fierce mermaiden cry
“O boy, tho' thou are young and proud,
I see the place where thou wilt lie.
“The sands and yeasty surges mix
In caves about the dreary bay,
And on thy ribs the limpet sticks,
And in thy heart the scrawl shall play.”
“Fool”, he answer’d, “death is sure
To those that stay and those that roam,
But I will nevermore endure
To sit with empty hands at home.
“My mother clings about my neck,
My sisters crying, ‘Stay for shame;’
My father raves of death and wreck, -
They are all to blame, they are all to blame.
“God help me! save I take my part
Of danger on the roaring sea,
A devil rises in my heart,
Far worse than any death to me.”
~ Alfred, Lord Tennyson
(from The Sailor Boy, 1861)
“I’m Just Sayin”
“The sovereignty of one's self over one's self is called Liberty.”
“What we do for ourselves dies with us.
What we do for others and the world,
remains and is immortal.”
“Doubt, the essential preliminary of all improvement and discovery,
must accompany the stages of man's onward progress.
The faculty of doubting and questioning,
without which those of comparison and judgment would be useless,
is itself a divine prerogative of the reason.”
~ Albert Pike
“Thought for the Day”
“There are no necessary evils in government.
Its evils exist only in its abuses.”
“No one need think that the world can be ruled without blood.
The civil sword shall and must be red and bloody.”
“It is to be regretted that the rich and powerful too often bend the acts of government to their own selfish purposes.”
“Americans are not a perfect people,
but we are called to a perfect mission.”
~ Andrew Jackson
“What I Learned”
>“The hottest place in Hell is reserved for those who remain neutral in times of great moral conflict.”
“If the facts don't fit the theory, change the facts.”
“There is no such thing as a good tax.”
Second Hand News: Articles from Week 18 - April 27, 2020 - May 03, 2020
States face $500B shortfalls as Congress debates aid
• 'Bogus analysis': Trump-appointed EPA advisers criticize study linking air pollution and coronavirus death
• 'It bothers me that this is still in the news cycle': Birx condemns coverage of Trump's 'disinfectant' remarks
Fox's Maria Bartiromo: Sources say Michael Flynn will be 'completely exonerated this week'
• House Intelligence Committee ranking member Devin Nunes wants to interview alleged Steele dossier source, Sergei Millian
• Coronavirus debt is a looming disaster
MOST READ: North Korea's Kim Jong Un in a 'vegetative' state following surgical procedure: Japanese media report
• 'You’re an intellectual coward': Candace Owens accuses AOC of racial hypocrisy after calling for workers to boycott jobs
• 'I thought he was a patriot': Former spy chief reflects on Mitch McConnell’s response to Russian interference
Latest Trump immigration fiat under fire from both sides but may 'get the job done'
• Many Georgia churches not taking up invitation to reopen
• Harvard law professor against home schooling forgets to check her class privilege
Pelosi Now Says U.S. Should Have Stopped Americans Coming Back From China
• Billionaire-Backed Axios Receives $5 Million ‘Small Business’ Bailout While Struggling Businesses Wait
• Protesters Descend On Wisconsin Capitol To Send A Message: We’re Done Staying Home
• With 26 Million Unemployed, Partially Opening Georgia’s Economy Is A Good Start
Media Blame Trump For Increased Poison Control Calls That Started Two Months Ago
• Kansas Governor Settles Lawsuit Alleging Discrimination Against Churches In Lockdown Order
• Virginia Health Commissioner Says Schools Could Remain Closed For Two Years
• Striking Images From Boston’s Empty Marathon Day And An Abandoned Fenway Park
MOST READ: How Cowardice And Class Privilege Shift Support For Coronavirus Lockdowns
• Reopening The Nation Is Now Necessary To Save Lives
• Instead Of ‘Flattening The Curve,’ We Flattened Hospitals, Doctors, And The U.S. Health Care System
• Newly Filed Court Documents Include Exculpatory Evidence For Michael Flynn
Police Have Started Revolting Against Draconian Coronavirus Edicts From Local Tyrants
• Looks Like Trump Was Right About The Coronavirus Fatality Rate
• Trump Was Right, Cuomo Was Wrong About Ventilator Needs
• How The Southern Poverty Law Center Started Inventing ‘Hate Groups’
CORRUPTION CHRONICLES: The ‘Crossfire Hurricane’ Hits Keep Coming
“Investigating the Investigators:” Mexican Hospital Overrun by COVID-19 Closes Near Busiest U.S. Crossing in Arizona
Does Google Have Hillary Clinton’s Emails? Court Authorizes Subpoena to Find Out
The FBI Cover-Up of Possible Russian Involvement in The Steele Dossier
$66 Mil, Federal Agents, National Guard Wasted on 2,500-Bed Camp That Averaged 30 Immigrants
OUTING FAKE NEWS OMISSIONS and DISTORTIONS: ABC Hypes Trump's 2020 Chances Getting 'Decimated by This Coronavirus'
• ABC, NBC Boost Biden Claim Trump Might Call Off Election in November
• Public Radio 'News' Man: Republicans, Inject Your Lungs 'With a Bullet'
• Debacle for New York Times: Story on Ousted HHS Director Crumbles Quickly
New York Times Distorts Trump’s ‘Cure-All’, Blames Him for Tank Cleaner Death
• The Liberal Media's Latest Corona Attack on Trump
• CNN Abandons Tara Reade After One Story; Network Sunday Shows Skip
• CNN Is Colluding with Biden to Bury Tara Reade Story
North Korea and Regional Security in the Kim Jong-un Era.
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Hurrying along the FDA and its allies (Australia, Canada, New Zealand, Japan, the Scandinavian countries and the European Medicines Agency).
The Department of the Army and the DoD seek to balance goals and spending.
Andrés Manuel López Obrador (AMLO) President of Mexico treats the crisis as an opportunity for growing state control.
Iran launches a satellite & What is to be done?
A Disease in the Public Mind - A New Understanding of Why We Fought the Civil War.
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John Batchelor (04/13/2020)
Mr. Answer Man Please Tell Us: Where Does The Human Brain Get Its Energy?
What’s the source of energy that powers the human brain? Mainly sugar, glucose. Glucose is broken down and in the process it is used to create a gradient of hydrogen ions (oxygen is also needed, which is why we breathe). So you get a sort of dam with lots of hydrogen on one side and little on the other.
They can only pass through a specific structure, which uses the force to create ATP (Adenosine triphosphate). ATP (Adenosine triphosphate) is then used to power many biological processes, including the active processes that keep your neurons firing.
(See Fabian van den Berg's answer to “Why do we inhale oxygen and exhale carbon dioxide?”.)
Neurons fire using a similar method of gradients. When the incoming signal increases the voltage enough, voltage gated channels spring open and sodium can flow in making it more positive. The neighboring gate also springs open, the same happens, and the chain keeps going until the synapses, where neurotransmitters are released to, do the same to the next neuron.
(See Fabian van den Berg's answer to “How does opening a sodium channel cause depolarization in a neuron?”)
In order to keep the neuron negative, and to reset it back after firing, an active process ferries ions across the membrane, which requires energy, and the energy comes from ATP (Adenosine triphosphate).
Economic (or “econ”) Officers work with foreign governments to secure internet freedom, fund scientific advances, protect the environment, or negotiate new trade laws.
So ultimately your brain runs on sugar and oxygen, which it uses to power the ATP (Adenosine triphosphate) machine in your mitochondria.
Brainfacts.org / Wikipedia / Encyclopedia Britannica /
National Center for Biotechnology Information.gov / Quora /
Scientific American / Live Science / University of Rochester Medical Center /
Where Does The Human Brain Get Its Energy? (YouTube)
NAVSPEAK aka U.S. Navy Slang
Masagi Girl: A prostitute (typically Chinese) found in the Honch. So-called because they urgently whisper “Masagi?” as sailors wander past in search of libations.
M.A.S.H.: Make A Sailor Hurt: (used in boot camp to describe) any physical training on the time of the Company Commander. Such training usually resulted in the recruit hitting the rack with several aches and pains he would not normally have had.
Mast: Common abbreviated form of “Captain's Mast” or “Admiral's Mast”. A form of non-judicial punishment in which a sailor finds himself standing tall in front of the old man when he has really screwed the pooch. Green felt is usually abundant.
Mast Crank: A fictitious crank, usually impersonated by a Bull Gear crank from engineering, which is to be collected by a junior enlisted to crank down the mast while passing under a short bridge. It is typically made to disappear 30 seconds before it is needed, sending junior enlisted crewmembers into a panic that the mast will hit the bridge under which the ship is about to pass.
Material condition: Status open or closed, of various fittings, hatches, etc, which are denoted by a letter. Generally X(X-ray): always closed, Y(Yoke): closed while underway, Z(Zebra): closed while at GQ. (“Set material condition Zebra throughout the ship” is part of the standard GQ alarm.)
Marine Mattress: A female who likes to “socialize” with the Marines.
Mat Man: Electronics Maintenance Man.
Just for you MARINE
Master Guns or Master Gunny: Master Gunnery Sergeant Also sometimes referred to as “Maverick” due to the combination of slang for Master Sergeant “Top” and Gunnery Sergeant “Gunny”.
Marine Mattress: A woman who is thought to be sexually promiscuous with other Marines. The plural form is colloquially referred to as M&Ms.
MATMEP: Maintenance Training Management and Evaluation Program.
• Used to document individual formal and informal training in 6XXX series occupations (i.e., aviation maintenance); this information then rolls up to show an aviation unit's overall readiness to sustain operations.
• Sometimes referred to as “Me And The Marines Enjoy Paperwork” from the voluminous amounts of documentation generated.
Naval Aviation Squadron Nicknames
HSC-85 Helicopter Sea Combat (HSC) Squadron Eighty Five (Helicopter Anti-Submarine Squadron Eighty Five or HSC-85) - nicknamed the “High Rollers (2006)” - “Fire Hawks (2011)”
United States Navy - Naval Air Station - United States Navy Reserve, Naval Air Station North Island in San Diego, California.
Where Did That Saying Come From?
“Absolute power corrupts absolutely:”
Meaning: The proverbial saying 'power corrupts; absolute power corrupts absolutely' conveys the opinion that, as a person's power increases, their moral sense diminishes.
History: “Absolute power corrupts absolutely” is the best known quotation of the 19th century British politician Lord Acton. He borrowed the idea from several other writers who had previously expressed the same thought in different words.
Absolute monarchies are those in which all power is given to or, as is more often the case, taken by, the monarch. Examples of absolute power having a corrupting influence are Roman emperors (who declared themselves gods) and Napoleon Bonaparte (who declared himself an emperor).
“Absolute power corrupts absolutely” arose as part of a quotation by the expansively named and impressively hirsute John Emerich Edward Dalberg Acton, first Baron Acton (1834-1902). The historian and moralist, who was otherwise known simply as Lord Acton, expressed this opinion in a letter to Bishop Mandell Creighton in 1887:
“Power tends to corrupt, and absolute power corrupts absolutely. Great men are almost always bad men.”
The text is a favourite of collectors of quotations and is always included in anthologies. If you are looking for the exact “power tends to corrupt, and absolute power corrupts absolutely” wording, then Acton is your man. He coined the phrase but he didn't invent the idea; quotations very like it had been uttered by several authors well before 1887. Primary amongst them was another English politician with no shortage of names - William Pitt the Elder, Earl of Chatham and British Prime Minister from 1766 to 1778. Pitt said something similar in a speech to the UK House of Lords in 1770:
“Unlimited power is apt to corrupt the minds of those who possess it.”
Acton is likely to have taken his lead from the writings of the French republican poet and politician, again a generously titled individual - Alphonse Marie Louis de Prat de Lamartine. An English translation of Lamartine's essay France and England: a Vision of the Future was published in London in 1848 and included this text:
“It is not only the slave or serf who is ameliorated in becoming free. The master himself did not gain less in every point of view, for absolute power corrupts the best natures.”
Whether it is Lamartine or his anonymous English translator who can claim to have coined 'absolute power corrupts' we can't be sure. What we can be sure about is that it came before Lord Acton's more famous version. Whether Acton was aware of Lamartine's essay we can't now tell.
Science & Technology
At 2C warmer, lizards eat less healthily: study
• Abrupt shifts in Arctic climate projected
• Why are big storms bringing so much more rain? Warming, yes, but also winds
• How stabilizing disordered proteins may lead to the next generation of medical applications
Phys.org / MedicalXpress / TechXplore
Migrating eagles rack up huge data roaming charges
• Two new drugs finally hit ‘undruggable’ cancer target, providing hope for treatments
• World’s oldest ice core could solve mystery of ‘flipped’ ice age cycles
• Department of Energy plans major AI push to speed scientific discoveries
Bizarre News (we couldn’t make up stuff this good - real news story)
ESO telescope reveals what could be the smallest dwarf planet yet in the solar system
Source: ESO (European Southern Observatory)
Summary: Astronomers using ESO's SPHERE instrument at the Very Large Telescope (VLT) have revealed that the asteroid Hygiea could be classified as a dwarf planet. The object is the fourth largest in the asteroid belt after Ceres, Vesta and Pallas. For the first time, astronomers have observed Hygiea in sufficiently high resolution to study its surface and determine its shape and size. They found that Hygiea is spherical, potentially taking the crown from Ceres as the smallest dwarf planet in the solar system.
Astronomers using ESO's SPHERE instrument at the Very Large Telescope (VLT) have revealed that the asteroid Hygiea could be classified as a dwarf planet. The object is the fourth largest in the asteroid belt after Ceres, Vesta and Pallas. For the first time, astronomers have observed Hygiea in sufficiently high resolution to study its surface and determine its shape and size. They found that Hygiea is spherical, potentially taking the crown from Ceres as the smallest dwarf planet in the Solar System.
As an object in the main asteroid belt, Hygiea satisfies right away three of the four requirements to be classified as a dwarf planet: it orbits around the Sun, it is not a moon and, unlike a planet, it has not cleared the neighbourhood around its orbit. The final requirement is that it has enough mass for its own gravity to pull it into a roughly spherical shape. This is what VLT observations have now revealed about Hygiea.
“Thanks to the unique capability of the SPHERE instrument on the VLT, which is one of the most powerful imaging systems in the world, we could resolve Hygiea's shape, which turns out to be nearly spherical”, says lead researcher Pierre Vernazza from the Laboratoire d'Astrophysique de Marseille in France. “Thanks to these images, Hygiea may be reclassified as a dwarf planet, so far the smallest in the Solar System.”
The team also used the SPHERE observations to constrain Hygiea's size, putting its diameter at just over 430 km. Pluto, the most famous of dwarf planets, has a diameter close to 2400 km, while Ceres is close to 950 km in size.
Surprisingly, the observations also revealed that Hygiea lacks the very large impact crater that scientists expected to see on its surface, the team report in the study published today in Nature Astronomy. Hygiea is the main member of one of the largest asteroid families, with close to 7000 members that all originated from the same parent body. Astronomers expected the event that led to the formation of this numerous family to have left a large, deep mark on Hygiea.
“This result came as a real surprise as we were expecting the presence of a large impact basin, as is the case on Vesta”, says Vernazza. Although the astronomers observed Hygiea's surface with a 95% coverage, they could only identify two unambiguous craters. “Neither of these two craters could have been caused by the impact that originated the Hygiea family of asteroids whose volume is comparable to that of a 100 km-sized object. They are too small”, explains study co-author Miroslav Bro? of the Astronomical Institute of Charles University in Prague, Czech Republic.
The team decided to investigate further. Using numerical simulations, they deduced that Hygiea's spherical shape and large family of asteroids are likely the result of a major head-on collision with a large projectile of diameter between 75 and 150 km. Their simulations show this violent impact, thought to have occurred about 2 billion years ago, completely shattered the parent body. Once the left-over pieces reassembled, they gave Hygiea its round shape and thousands of companion asteroids. “Such a collision between two large bodies in the asteroid belt is unique in the last 3-4 billion years”, says Pavel Ševe?ek, a PhD student at the Astronomical Institute of Charles University who also participated in the study.
Studying asteroids in detail has been possible thanks not only to advances in numerical computation, but also to more powerful telescopes. “Thanks to the VLT and the new generation adaptive-optics instrument SPHERE, we are now imaging main belt asteroids with unprecedented resolution, closing the gap between Earth-based and interplanetary mission observations”, Vernazza concludes.
Science Daily (10/29/2019)
“Tired of Waiting for You” - The Kinks
The Kinks lead singer Ray Davies wrote “Tired of Waiting for You” while he was a student at Hornsey School of Art in London.
When The Kinks released their first album in 1964, they scored a huge hit with the Davies-penned “You Really Got Me” , which was followed by the sound-alike “All Day and All of the Night” .
When it came time to write songs for the next Kinks album, Ray was running out of ideas, so decided to record the song he had written in college. The group put down the backing track, but he couldn't remember the words, so he went home and wrote them the next day on the train ride into the studio. Released as the first single from the album, “Tired of Waiting for You” was a huge hit, going to #1 in the UK and charting at #6 in America, one position higher than “You Really Got Me” .
This was a more gentle song until it was decided that it needed the trademark Dave Davies loud guitar riffing. Davies recalled in 1000 UK #1 Hits by Jon Kutner and Spencer Leigh,
“The recording went well but there was something missing and it was my raunchy guitar sound. Ray and I were worried that putting that heavy-sounding guitar on top of a ponderous song might ruin it. Luckily it enhanced the recording, giving it a more cutting, emotional edge. In my opinion 'Tired Of Waiting' was the perfect pop record”.
In this song, Ray Davies sings about a girl who has him under her spell. Problem is, she keeps stringing him along and it's wearing him out. The vocal is suitably weary, lacking that adrenaline rush of their previous hits.
This discontent would play out for real throughout 1965 as The Kinks were dispatched to one show after another, doing promotional appearances along the way. It quickly became clear that there was a great deal of animosity in the band and that they couldn't keep up the pace for long.
The Kinks official site / Rock & Roll Hall of Fame / Billboard / All Music / Song Facts / The Kinks
Image: “Kinks-Size (album)” by The Kinks
Kinks Biography Part 1 - 6, Rock'n'Roll Hall Of Fame (YouTube)
● Spinach is high in which mineral?
Answer to Trivia
● Which British woman wrote and illustrated The Tale of Peter Rabbit in 1900?
Answer to Trivia
● What period of human culture followed the Stone Age and preceded the Iron Age?
Answer to Trivia
● This writing material, perfected in the 2nd century B.C., was made from the skins of calves, goats or sheep, and surpassed papyrus as the most important writing material in the Western world.
Answer to Trivia
● Who was known as the Maid of Orleans?
Answer to Trivia
A Test for People Who Know Everything
From the Jeopardy Archives Category - “LET IT 'RAIN'” ($200)
“A twisting of ligaments at a joint, such as the ankle.”
● Answer for People Who Do Not Know Everything, or Want to Verify Their Answer Mayo Clinic.org
From the Jeopardy Archives Category - “LET IT 'RAIN'” ($400)
“Something that's the cause of a decrease, such as 'on resources'.”
● Answer for People Who Do Not Know Everything, or Want to Verify Their Answer Bob Vila
From the Jeopardy Archives Category - “LET IT 'RAIN'” ($600)
“Abstain & this other 'ain' word both mean to just not do it.”
● Answer for People Who Do Not Know Everything, or Want to Verify Their Answer Word Detective
From the Jeopardy Archives Category - “LET IT 'RAIN'” ($800)
“It's the 'AT' in ATV”
● Answer for People Who Do Not Know Everything, or Want to Verify Their Answer Star Wars
From the Jeopardy Archives Category - “LET IT 'RAIN'” ($1,000)
“You're probably one of these eggheads from the name of a super-smart alien in the Superman comics.”
● Answer for People Who Do Not Know Everything, or Want to Verify Their Answer DC Comics
Answer to Last Week's Test
From the Jeopardy Archives Category - “DAMON RUNYONESQUE GANGSTER LINGO” ($200)
“Meaning to die, it sounds like an amphibian noise.”
● Answer: Croak. Wise Guys Online
From the Jeopardy Archives Category - “DAMON RUNYONESQUE GANGSTER LINGO” ($400)
“A shiv is a knife & an equalizer is this other weapon.”
● Answer: a Gun. Wise Guys Online
From the Jeopardy Archives Category - “DAMON RUNYONESQUE GANGSTER LINGO” ($600)
“Sounds like an absence of wagering cubes, but it means 'isn't gonna happen'.”
● Answer: No Dice. Phrases.org
From the Jeopardy Archives Category - “DAMON RUNYONESQUE GANGSTER LINGO” ($800)
“Meaning con artists or swindlers, it was the title of a 1990 Anjelica Huston-John Cusack film.”
● Answer: Grifter. Wise Guys Online
From the Jeopardy Archives Category - “DAMON RUNYONESQUE GANGSTER LINGO” ($1,000)
“Runyon gangsters use this word for the face; Jackie Gleason put it after 'Pow! Right in the...'.”
● Answer: Kisser. Wise Guys Online
Joke of the Day
“A Dog Walks Into a Bar...”
A Dog Walks Into a Bar and asks the bartender, “Do you have any jobs?”
The bartender says, “Why don’t you try the circus?”
The dog replies, “Why would the circus need a bartender?”