Old Sailors' Almanac

THIS WEEK IN HISTORY

Week 47, 2020

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Saint Peter's Basilica is Consecrated on November 18, 1626

Saint Peter's Basilica is Consecrated on November 18, 1626

Saint Peter's Basilica is Consecrated: Saint Peter’s Basilica, also called New Saint Peter’s Basilica, The Papal Basilica of Saint Peter in the Vatican, built in Vatican City during the Renaissance.

Begun by Pope Julius II in 1506 and completed in 1615 under Paul V. It is designed as a three-aisled Latin cross with a dome at the crossing, directly above the high altar, which covers the shrine of Saint Peter the Apostle. The edifice - the church of the popes - is a major pilgrimage site. Italy's largest Church, consecrated after more than a century of work.

Saint Peter's Basilica was chiefly designed by Bramante, Michelangelo, Carlo Maderno and Gian Lorenzo Bernini. Michelangelo's contribution to the basilica was the greatest of them. He was the only architect who worked on it whose plans were continued without significant changes after his death.

In the Catholic Tradition, the Basilica is believed to have been built upon the burial site of Christ’s Apostle Saint Peter. Pope’s have been interned in the Basilica since the early Christian era and a church has existed on the site since the 4th century. It is one of the four Major Basilicas, all of which are in Rome. Built between 1506 and 1626, Saint Peter’s Basilica stands as one of the largest churches in the world and one of the holiest shrines and greatest churches in Christendom.

The Old and the New

In ancient Roman times one of the 12 Apostles, Saint Peter, was crucified in Rome by the order of Emperor Nero in 64 AD. Some years after his death a shrine was built upon his burial site which was outside the Roman Circus on what is now called Vatican Hill. Several centuries later in 318 AD, the Emperor Constantine I ordered the construction of a Church on the site. Now known as the Old Saint Peter’s Basilica this church stood from the 4th until the 16th century before the New Saint Peter’s Basilica was built on the same site to replace it.

The Old Saint Peter's Basilica stood for many centuries and was an important Christian holy site. By the 15th century, the old basilica was in a state of disrepair. Plans for changes to the old basilica were made during the reign of Pope Nicholas V. Substantial materials had been transported for this purpose including stone taken from the ancient Roman Colosseum. However, Nicholas V died while little had been done and the reconstruction did not go ahead as intended.

Around 50 years later in 1505, Pope Julius II made the decision to tear down the old basilica and erect a completely new one upon the same site. Julius II had commissioned Michelangelo to design and sculpt his own tomb, which would reside in Saint Peter’s Basilica. Including Pope Julius II, the construction of the new basilica would occur over the course of the reign of 21 Pope’s in total.

Saint Peter's Basilica is Consecrated on November 18, 1626

Architecture For the New Saint Peter’s Basilicas

For such a prestigious project many architects sought the honor and put forward plans for a new basilica. Several of these designs can still be found today at the Uffizi Gallery in Florence. The design settled upon was that of Donato Bramante. Known for Renaissance architecture in Milan and Rome, his design would become the basis for the later work on the basilica by Michelangelo.

The dome became one of the most important aspects of the design for the basilica. Every architect that worked on the new basilica called for a dome to rival that of the ancient Roman Pantheon and the Cathedral of Florence. The design of the dome that would top the basilica called for it to be supported by four large pillars, whereas that of the Pantheon is supported by a continuous wall.

Pope Julius II died in 1513, Giuliano da Sangallo, Fra Giocondo, and Raffaello Sanzio da Urbino (Raphael) replaced Donato Bramante. By 1515 Sangallo, Giocondo, and Bramante had died, leaving Raphael to continue the work. Raphael’s design called for a great extension of five bays added to the nave compared to Bramante’s original plan. The basilica would have been significantly longer had this been carried out. While Raphael died in 1520 his plans were maintained by his successor Baldassare Peruzzi. Complications such as the sack of Rome in 1527, meant that by the time of his death in 1536 this plan had not been implemented.

Antonio da Sangallo the Younger proceeded to take over the work at this point. His primary effort was to strength the constructions of Bramante as they had begun to weaken over time. Combining aspects of the previous plans, Sangallo fashioned his own more elegant design. Shortening the nave, thereby adapting Raphael's plan, was a large part of his own design. 10 years after the death of Raphael, in 1546, Sangallo the Younger also died. Leaving his designs unfulfilled but having carried out important maintenance of the work done by his predecessors.

Saint Peter's Basilica is Consecrated on November 18, 1626

Michelangelo’s Work on the Basilica

After the passing of yet another architect, Michelangelo was not the first choice of the reigning Pope Paul III, whose preferred architect Giulio Romano had died in late 1546. Jacopo Sansovino was also asked, but he refused to leave Venice to work In Rome. Following these complications, Michelangelo was pressured to take on the job. It was later found in his writings that he said: “I undertake this only for the love of God and in honor of the Apostle.”

Michelangelo took over the construction conditionally, desiring the freedom to accomplish the project as he thought necessary. With this artistic freedom, his designs and their implementation went on to make him the primary designer of the basilica as it exists to this day. In taking up the role of superintendent (Capomaestro) of the construction, Michelangelo had access to all of the previous design plans for the new basilica. All of the previous designers had called for a large dome adorned with a Greek or Latin cross.

The desire for a large dome could draw inspiration from both ancient Rome and Renaissance Italy. Far more recent than the Pantheon of antiquity, in 1436 Filippo Brunelleschi had built the powerful dome of Florence Cathedral. Brunelleschi was one of the founders of the Renaissance. Matching the splendor of Brunelleschi's dome had been envisioned by every architect who worked on the new basilica.

Using the ideas of the previous architects and his own coalesced into a visionary design that brought together the distinctiveness of Bramante’s original design and all of the later plans. The eastern end of the New Saint Peter’s Basilica with its monumental dome was the centrifugal point of Michelangelo’s work and his most distinct contribution. The dome remains the tallest of its kind in the world today. While he lived Michelangelo only saw to the construction of the base of the dome called the Tamburo.

At the age of 88 years old, Michelangelo died in 1564. Unlike the previous architects that worked upon the new basilica, Michelangelo’s work was intended to continue unchanged. His assistant Jacopo Barozzi da Vignola was left to carry on the work in his stead and the reigning Pope, Pius V, assigned Giorgio Vasari to ensure that the work was carried out in accordance with the plans of Michelangelo.

However, work progressed slowly and Pope Sixtus decided to commission Giacomo Della Porta to oversee the completion of the work in 1585. The speed of construction increased greatly although Sixtus was Pope only for a short time. A number deal of sketches of both general and minute detail had been left by Michelangelo. Porta largely adhered to what had been laid out by Michelangelo, mostly making alterations of a more cosmetic nature. The one major change that Porta oversaw was the raising of the outer dome higher over the inner one.

It is unknown if the hemispherical shape of the dome was Michelangelo’s original intention or if it was changed from an ovoid dome at the behest of Porta. Sketches and models from the time of the construction present mixed representations of the dome. The dome was completed in 1590, it would still be several years before the basilica reached completion. After more than a century, construction ended in the 1600s and the New Saint Peter’s Basilica was consecrated in 1626.

Michelangelo's Legacy

Michelangelo is perhaps the most famous artist of the late Renaissance, responsible for many works of art featured in the Sistine Chapel, Laurentian Library, and Saint Peter’s Basilica. Michelangelo completed two famous works on the Sistine Chapel early in his life, the Sistine Chapel ceiling and The Last Judgement, a fresco.

Prior to his work on the New Saint Peter’s Basilica, the Pope Julius II commissioned him to paint the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel. The ceiling depicts scenes from the Book of Genesis in the Old Testament. In order to paint the high ceiling, Michelangelo had to devise his own scaffolding and work under difficult conditions standing upright for his work. A fresco painting is painted upon fresh or damp plaster, the plaster dries and sets the paint upon the wall.

Also in the Sistine Chapel is The Last Judgement, it covers the altar wall and like the ceiling, it is a fresco. Michelangelo painted The Last Judgement 25 years after he had painted the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel. It took four years of work for the piece to be finished. Michelangelo’s extensive work for the Vatican prior to his commencement of work on the Saint Peter’s Basilica highly commended him to that design and his creation was one of the most brilliant works of the Renaissance.

Michelangelo’s most famous sculptures are Pietà and David. Pietà depicts Jesus after his crucifixion, with the Virgin Mary. Pietà was installed in the Saint Peter’s Basilica and remains there to this day. It is the only work of his art that Michelangelo personally signed. David, named for the biblical David, resides in the Florence Cathedral.

Where the New Saint Peter’s Basilica is concerned, Michelangelo’s legacy is the dome at the chancel end of the basilica, it is the tallest in of its kind in the world. He did not live to see its completion, which was overseen by Giacomo Della Porta and Domenico Fontana by 1590. But during his life, his plans for the basilica became so advanced and were respected enough that major changes were not made while efforts to stick to his designs were.

The work of Michelangelo influenced art and architecture for centuries after his death. The Saint Peter’s basilica inspired the domes of the Capitol building in Washinton D.C and Saint Paul’s in London. He was one of the longest-lived artists of the late Renaissance, so much so that his assistant Giorgio Vasari published a biography of Michelangelo while he still lived. His work has remained a great influence upon artists and architects for more than five centuries now and will be revered as long as his works still stand.

Michelangelo / Wikipedia / Encyclopedia Britannica / Vatican Museums and Saint Peter’s Basilica.va / Italia.it / Society of Architectural Historians.org / Saint Peter's Basilica is Consecrated on November 18, 1626 (YouTube) video

“This Day in History”

This Day in History November 11

•  326 Old Saint Peter's Basilica is consecrated by Pope Sylvester I

•  401 Visigoths led by king Alaric I cross the Alps and invade northern Italy.

• 1095 Council of Clermont: begins: called by Pope Urban II led to the First Crusade to the Holy Land.

• 1105 Maginulfo is elected the Antipope as Sylvester IV.

• 1210 Pope Innocent III excommunicates Holy Roman Emperor Otto IV.

• 1282 Pope Martin IV excommunicates Holy Roman Emperor Otto IV.

• 1210 Pope Innocent III excommunicates King Peter III of Aragon.

• 1302 Pope Boniface VIII issues the Papal bull Unam sanctam, claiming spiritual supremacy for the papacy.

• 1421 A seawall at the Zuiderzee dike in the Netherlands breaks, flooding 72 villages and killing about 10,000 people - will be known as Saint Elizabeth's flood.

• 1493 Christopher Columbus first sights the island now known as Puerto Rico.

• 1803 Haitian Revolution: Battle of Vertières: Leads to the establishment of the Republic of Haiti, the first black republic in the Western Hemisphere.

• 1805 Napoleonic Wars: Action of 18 November 1809: French frigates defeat British East Indiamen in the Bay of Bengal.

• 1872 Susan B. Anthony and 14 other women are arrested for voting illegally in the United States presidential election of 1872.

• 1940 World War II: Adolf Hitler and Italian Foreign Minister Galeazzo Ciano meet to discuss Benito Mussolini's disastrous Italian invasion of Greece.

• 1943 World War II: Battle of Berlin: Four hundred and forty Royal Air Force planes bomb Berlin.

• 1963 First push-button telephone goes into service.

• 1978 Jonestown, Guyana: Jim Jones led his Peoples Temple to a mass murder–suicide that claimed 918 lives.

• 1988 War on Drugs: U.S. President Ronald Reagan signs a bill into law allowing the death penalty for drug traffickers.


“Tales of Legendary Ghost Ships - Legend of København”

The Old Salt’s Corner

“Tales of Legendary Ghost Ships”

Legend of København

On December 14, 1928, the København, a Danish East Asiatic Company sailing ship left the Rio de la Plata (an area between Uruguay and Argentina) en route to Australia. It was notable for having five masts.

“She was a well-found vessel, fitted with wireless (radio) an auxiliary engine and ample lifeboats”, writes Hamish Ross. “A training ship, she had a crew of 60 men, many of whom were cadets, some from very prominent Danish families.”

The ship was in touch, through radio, with the Norwegian steamer William Blumer on Dec. 21, but after that it was never heard from again.

“Following the København's disappearance, many theories sprang up as to her loss, but the most likely seems to be that she struck an iceberg in darkness or fog”, writes Ross. “There were also reports of sightings of a phantom five-masted vessel in 1930.” In 2012, a wreck was found at the island of Tristan da Cunha that could potentially be the København. (Image Credit: State Library of Queensland, courtesy Wikimedia Commons)

Live Science / Port Germein History. / Ocean Navigator / Wikipedia


“I’m Just Sayin’”

“I’m Just Sayin”

“The object of teaching a child is to enable him to get along without his teacher.”

“If men could only know each other,

they would neither idolize nor hate.”

“A failure is a man who has blundered,

but is not able to cash in the experience.”

~ Elbert Hubbard


“Thought for the Day”

“Thought for the Day”

“Whosoever is delighted in solitude is either a wild beast or a god.”

“Some books are to be tasted,

others to be swallowed,

and some few to be chewed and digested.”

“Truth is a good dog;

but always beware of barking too close to the heels of an error,

lest you get your brains kicked out.”

~ Francis Bacon


“What I Have Learned”

“What I Learned”

“Don't walk behind me;

I may not lead.

Don't walk in front of me;

I may not follow.

Just walk beside me and be my friend.”

~ Anonymous


What Causes “Butterflies in the Stomach”? Mr. Answer Man Please Tell Us: What Causes “Butterflies in the Stomach”?

If you have ever been nervous about something that is about to happen, then you may have felt the sensations of nausea and “fluttering” - the recognizable and odd sensation deep in your gut known as having “butterflies in the stomach”.

Perhaps you were about to give a speech to a large audience, were in the waiting room for a big interview, were about to step up and take a key penalty shot or about to meet a potential love interest. Rather than actual butterflies bouncing around your large intestine, of course, there is of course something more scientific going on - and it’s all down to your nervous system.

Common symptoms of a nervous stomach - “butterflies” in the stomach may include:

tightness, churning, cramping, knots in the stomach

feeling nervous or anxious

shaking, shivering, twitching of muscles

stomach upset, nausea, or queasiness

indigestion, or rapid fullness when eating

warmth, fluttering, or bloated feeling in pit of stomach

frequent flatulence

increased urination and bowel movements

What Causes “Butterflies in the Stomach”?

Clever Body Systems

The human body is capable of looking after itself without too much voluntary thought. It quite happily regulates heart rate, blood flow and the distribution of nutrients around the body without you having to consciously intervene in any way – a process run by the autonomic nervous system (ANS).

The ANS can be split into two roughly equal branches—the sympathetic and the parasympathetic, or, as it is memorized by every first year medical student, the “fight-or-flight” and the “rest-and-digest” branches. Both branches of the ANS are constantly active, and act in opposition to each other.

The sympathetic (“fight-or-flight”) system is responsible for increasing your heart rate, while the parasympathetic (“rest-and-digest”) system decreases it. So, the rate at which your heart is beating is the balance of the activity of the two branches of the ANS.

The dominance of the parasympathetic branch is why you feel content and sleepy after a giant lunch. Quite of bit of blood flow from the heart is directed to the stomach, and your ANS encourages you to sit down for a bit to let digestion take place.

Fight-or-Flight

So what’s this got to do with butterflies? One of the major roles of the ANS is to prepare you for what it thinks is about to happen. This gives an evolutionary advantage, since if you see a sabre-toothed tiger about to pounce, you don’t want your valuable oxygen-filled blood to be busy with your last meal. Ideally you would want this blood to be temporarily redirected to muscles in your legs so that you can run away slightly faster.

So, your “fight-or-flight” sympathetic system kicks in and becomes dominant over parasympathetic activity. This also causes a release of adrenaline, which both increases your heart rate (to pump more blood and faster), releases huge amounts of glucose from the liver, and shunts blood away from the gut. The blood is redirected toward the muscles in the arms and legs which makes them ready to either defend you, or run away faster - the “fight-or-flight” that you’ll probably be familiar with.

However, this acute shortage of blood to the gut does have side effects—slowed digestion. The muscles surrounding the stomach and intestine slow down their mixing of their partially digested contents. The blood vessels specifically in this region constrict, reducing blood flow through the gut.

While adrenaline contracts most of the gut wall to slow digestion, it relaxes a specific gut muscle called the “external anal sphincter”, which is why some people report a pressing need to visit a bathroom when they’re nervous. This reduction in blood flow through the gut in turn produces the oddly characteristic “butterflies” feeling in the pit of your stomach. It senses this shortage of blood, and oxygen, so the stomach’s own sensory nerves are letting us know it’s not happy with the situation.

So why do we call it “Butterflies”? It certainly does feel like and get described as “fluttering” by a lot of people, probably because “Jaguars in your Jejunum” just doesn’t sound as right.

Discover Magazine / Wikipedia / Penn State University / Psychology Today / Healthline / Gut Microbiota For Health / Quora / What Causes “Butterflies in the Stomach”? (YouTube) video


NAVSPEAK aka U.S. Navy Slang - U.S. Navy

NAVSPEAK aka U.S. Navy Slang

PosMo: Positive Motivation. Punishment for screwing up or being a Rock. Also known as Extra Military Instruction (EMI).

Powder Monkey: Term referring to a sailor sent back and forth for an item, usually tasked to retrive something from below-decks; derives from young boys who served on wooden ships that retrieved powder for broadside firing.

Power Troll: A name for any officious person, usually used by engineers. Comes from the Powertrol valve used in AFFF firefighting systems.

PPC: Patrol Plane Commander. Usually the senior pilot on a patrol aircraft.

2P (second pilot).

3Ps are relatively new pilots in a patrol aircraft.

No-Ps are pilots who have not qualified for 3P.

Pri-Fly: Primary Flight Control. A room located high in an aircraft carrier's island where the Air Boss and Mini-Boss run all flight operations within a five mile radius of the ship.

PRT: Physical Readiness Test. A sailor is required to perform a certain number of situps, pushups, and a 1.5-mile run in a given time (which varies based on age and gender). Replaced with the PFA.

PT: Physical Training. A required exercise regimen.

Wiktionary.org


Just for MARINES - The Few. The Proud.

Just for you MARINE

Pot Shack: Place where cooking utensils are washed.

Possible: Slang term for the highest score possible in a marksmanship exercise as in “shooting a possible”; used on the rifle range during Recruit Training to denote the shooter possibly achieving a perfect score in a given round of firing.

Pos: Sounds like paws. Radio lingo for position.

Powder Monkey: Name used within Field Artillery for the Marine whose job it is to prepare the powder/propellant needed for a specific fire mission. Although every crew member is trained to perform each job, the responsibility of preparing powder increments for non-fixed ammunition normally falls upon the most junior member of a gun crew.

PowerPoint Ranger: Pejorative for Marines (usually officers) who have spent too much time in an office.

Wikipedia.org


Naval Aviation Squadron Nicknames

Naval Aviation Squadron Nicknames

HM-15 Helicopter Mine Countermeasures (HM) Squadron ONE FIVE - nicknamed the “Blackhawks”

United States Navy Naval Air Station - Sea Dragon is Airborne Mine Countermeasures (AMCM), Naval Station Norfolk, Virginia / Squadron Lineage: HM-15: January 2, 1987 - present.


Where Did That Saying Come From

Where Did That Saying Come From?

Where Did That Saying Come From? “All that glitters is not gold”

All that glitters is not gold:

Meaning: The proverbial saying 'All that glitters is not gold' means that not everything that is shiny and superficially attractive is valuable.

History: The original form of this phrase was 'all that glisters is not gold'. The 'glitters' version long ago superseded the original and is now almost universally used.

“Shakespeare is the best-known writer to have expressed the idea that shiny things aren't necessarily precious things. The original editions of The Merchant of Venice, 1596, have the line as 'all that glisters is not gold'. 'Glister' is usually replaced by 'glitter' in modern renditions of the play:

“O hell! what have we here?

A carrion Death, within whose empty eye

There is a written scroll! I'll read the writing.

All that glitters is not gold;

Often have you heard that told:

Many a man his life hath sold

But my outside to behold:

Gilded tombs do worms enfold.

Had you been as wise as bold,

Young in limbs, in judgment old,

Your answer had not been inscroll'd:

Fare you well; your suit is cold.”

Various different ways of expressing the idea that 'all that glitters/glisters is not gold' were in general circulation well before Shakespeare's day and it was a common enough notion to have been called proverbial by the 16th century. The 12th century French theologian Alain de Lille wrote “Do not hold everything gold that shines like gold”. Geoffrey Chaucer also expressed the same idea in Middle English in the poem The House of Fame, 1380 - “Hit is not al gold, that glareth”. Nevertheless, it is Shakespeare who gave us the version we now use.

The 'glitters' version of this phrase is so long established as to be perfectly acceptable - especially as 'glisters' and 'glitters' mean the same thing. Only the most pedantic insist that 'all that glisters is not gold' is correct and that 'all that glitters is not gold', being a misquotation, however cobweb-laden, should be shunned. John Dryden was quite happy to use 'glitters' as long ago as 1687, in his poem The Hind and the Panther:

“For you may palm upon us new for old:

All, as they say, that glitters, is not gold.”

The fall from grace of the British paedophile Gary Glitter has given glitter a bad name and the previously defunct alternative glister may yet return to the language.

Phrases.org UK


Science & Technology

Science & Technology

Science & Technology

We now know the effect of altitude on classic “Diet Coke and Mentos“ fountainHere are 10 alternative ideas for what NASA could do with its Moon budgetWill SARS-CoV-2 have a long-term impact on the climate?Google knows if everyone in your county is actually staying home or notBugs that let sites hijack Mac and iPhone cameras fetch $75k bounty ARS Technica

Deep-sea worms and bacteria team up to harvest methaneNASA's Perseverance Mars rover gets its wheels and air brakesUsing sponges to wipe out cancerAnterior insula activation restores prosocial behavior in animal model of opioid addictionA direct protein-to-protein binding couples cell survival to cell proliferation Phys.org / MedicalXpress / TechXplore


Bizarre News (we couldn’t make up stuff this good – real news story)

Bizarre News (we couldn’t make up stuff this good - real news story)

Mimicking cancer's evasive tactics, microparticles show promise for transplant rejection

Mimicking cancer's evasive tactics, microparticles show promise for transplant rejection

Source: University of Pittsburgh

Summary: Inspired by a tactic cancer cells use to evade the immune system, researchers have engineered tiny particles that can trick the body into accepting transplanted tissue as its own. Rats that were treated with these cell-sized microparticles developed permanent immune tolerance to grafts - including a whole limb - from a donor rat, while keeping the rest of their immune system intact, according to a new article.

Rats that were treated with these cell-sized microparticles developed permanent immune tolerance to grafts - including a whole limb - from a donor rat, while keeping the rest of their immune system intact, according to a paper published today in Science Advances.

“It's like hacking into the immune system borrowing a strategy used by one of humanity's worst enemies to trick the body into accepting a transplant”, said senior author Steven Little, Ph.D., William Kepler Whiteford Endowed Professor and Chair of chemical and petroleum engineering in the Swanson School of Engineering at Pittsburgh. “And we do it synthetically”.

The advantage of a synthetic approach rather than cell-based therapy, which is currently in clinical trials, is that the treatment logistics are much simpler.

“Instead of isolating cells from a patient, growing them up in the lab, injecting them back in and hoping they find the right location, we're packaging it all up in an engineered system that recruits these naturally occurring cells right to the transplanted graft”, said lead author James Fisher, M.D., Ph.D., a postdoctoral researcher in the Pittsburgh School of Medicine.

Mimicking cancer's evasive tactics, microparticles show promise for transplant rejection

The microparticles work by releasing a native protein secreted by tumors, CCL22, which draws regulatory T cells (Treg cells) to the site of the graft, where they tag the foreign tissue as “self” so that it evades immune attack.

Microparticle-treated animals maintained healthy grafts for as long as they were monitored - a little under a year, equivalent to about 30 human years. All it took was two shots to effect seemingly permanent change.

In a companion paper published recently in PNAS, the researchers showed that these engineered microparticles can train the immune system of one strain of rat to accept a donor limb from a different strain. This new paper shows that the effects are specific to the intended donor. Skin grafts from a third strain were rapidly rejected.

Today, transplant patients take daily doses of immunosuppressant drugs to avoid rejection, leaving them vulnerable to cancer, diabetes, infectious diseases and a host of other ailments that come along with a weakened immune system.

“These drugs hammer the immune system into submission so it can't attack the transplanted organ, but then it can't protect the body either”, said coauthor Stephen Balmert, Ph.D., a postdoctoral researcher in the Pittsburgh School of Medicine. “We're trying to teach the immune system to tolerate the limb, so that a transplant recipient can remain immunocompetent.”

The risks of lifelong immunosuppression are particularly problematic when the transplant isn't a life-saving procedure. Doctors and patients have to consider whether the benefits outweigh the risks.

“The ability to induce transplant tolerance while avoiding systemic immunosuppression, as demonstrated in these innovative studies, is especially important in the context of vascularized composite transplantation where patients receive quality-of-life transplants, such as those of hands or face”, said coauthor Angus Thomson, Ph.D., professor of surgery and immunology in the Thomas E. Starzl Transplantation Institute at Pittsburgh.

Additional authors on the study include Wensheng Zhang, Ph.D., Ali Aral, M.D., Abhinav Acharya, Ph.D., Yalcin Kulahci, M.D., Jingjing Li, M.D., Heth Turnquist, Ph.D., Mario Solari, M.D., all of Pittsburgh; and Vijay Gorantla, M.D., Ph.D., of the Wake Forest School of Medicine.

Science Daily (03/13/2020) video


© CEASAR CHOPPY by cartoonist Marty Gavin - archives Ceasar Choppy's Navy! “© CEASAR CHOPPY” by Marty Gavin

SONG FACTS

“Candy Man” - Roy Orbison 1961

“Candy Man” video - Roy Orbison
Album: 16 Biggest Hits Roy Orbison
Released 1961

Candy Manvideo was recorded by Roy Orbison and his band, “The Candymen”. The Instrumentation of the song is two guitars, two harmonicas, a bass guitar, a set of drums, backing vocals (female) and Roy's lead vocals. It clocks in at 2:46 minutes.

Fred Neil and Beverly “Ruby” Ross wrote this song specifically for Orbison. It was the first hit song written by Neil, who had a rather interesting career as a singer and songwriter in the folk community.

Neil kept a low profile, but had many famous admirers including David Crosby, Jimmy Buffett and Tim Buckley. He also wrote “Everybody's Talkin'video, which was a hit for Harry Nilsson.

Ross was a member of the duo Ronald & Ruby, who had a hit single in 1958 with “Lollipopvideo.

This was released as the B-side of Orbison's hit “Cryingvideo. Unlike “Crying” and many of Orbison's other lovelorn ballads, “Candy Manvideo is much more upbeat and finds Orbison singing about pleasing a woman.

Roy Orbison official site / Rock & Roll Hall of Fame / Billboard / All Music / Song Facts / Roy Orbison

Image: “16 Biggest Hits Roy Orbison (album)” by Roy Orbison


Jeopardy

A Test for People Who Know Everything

From the Jeopardy Archives Category - “A POP CULTURE THANKSGIVING” ($200)

“A traditional folk song finds it “in the straw” & “in the hayvideo.”

Answer for People Who Do Not Know Everything, or Want to Verify Their Answer YouTube

From the Jeopardy Archives Category - “A POP CULTURE THANKSGIVING” ($400)

“The song “Zombievideo by this group is about the blood shed over Irish freedom.”

Answer for People Who Do Not Know Everything, or Want to Verify Their Answer Official Website

From the Jeopardy Archives Category - “A POP CULTURE THANKSGIVING” ($600)

“A 1933 Popeye short is called ]I ____ What I ____].”

Answer for People Who Do Not Know Everything, or Want to Verify Their Answer YouTube

From the Jeopardy Archives Category - “A POP CULTURE THANKSGIVING” ($800)

“Justin Theroux starred in this HBO series in which 2% of the world's population had disappeared - was it the rapture?.”

Answer for People Who Do Not Know Everything, or Want to Verify Their Answer HBO

From the Jeopardy Archives Category - “A POP CULTURE THANKSGIVING” ($1,000)

“Gangly banjo player David Akeman, a star of the Grand Ole Opry & “Hee Haw”, had this nickname.”

Answer for People Who Do Not Know Everything, or Want to Verify Their Answer Vintage News Daily


Answer to Last Week's Test

From the Jeopardy Archives Category - “AMERICAN QUOTATIONS” ($200)

“He knew 'not what course others may take; but as for me, give me liberty, or give me death'.”

● Answer: Patrick Henry. Yale Law School, Lillian Goldman Law Library

From the Jeopardy Archives Category - “AMERICAN QUOTATIONS” ($400)

'

“He resolved that 'government of the people, by the people, for the people, shall not perish from the Earth'.”

● Answer: Abraham Lincoln. Cornell University.edu

From the Jeopardy Archives Category - “AMERICAN QUOTATIONS” ($600)

“FDR: 'Yesterday, December 7, 1941 - a date which will live in' this.”

● Answer: 'infamy'. Library Of Congress

From the Jeopardy Archives Category - “AMERICAN QUOTATIONS” ($800)

“A 1908 work called America 'the great' this vessel, 'where all the races of Europe are...reforming'.”

● Answer: 'melting pot'. Harvard University, The Pluralism Project.org

From the Jeopardy Archives Category - “AMERICAN QUOTATIONS” ($1,000)

“An 1844 campaign slogan was this number 'or Fight', a reference to the northern border of the Oregon territory.”

● Answer: Triple Stumper (Jack: 'What is 44?') '54-40 or Fight'. U.S. History.org


Joke of the Day

Joke of the Day

Joke of the Day

“Wife's Having Baby In The Cab!”

A man comes into the ER and yells, “My wife's going to have her baby in the cab!”

The doctor grabbed his stuff, rushed out to the cab, lifted the lady's dress, and began to take off her underwear.

Suddenly I noticed that there were several cabs, and I was in the wrong one.