Old Sailors' Almanac


Week 24, 2020

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Salem witch trials: Bridget Bishop is Hanged at Gallows Hill near Salem, Massachusetts, for “Certaine Detestable Arts called Witchcraft and Sorceries” on June 10, 1692

Salem witch trials: Bridget Bishop is Hanged at Gallows Hill near Salem, Massachusetts, for “Certaine Detestable Arts called Witchcraft and Sorceries” on June 10, 1692

Salem witch trials: Bridget Bishop is Hanged at Gallows Hill near Salem, Massachusetts: In early 1692, during the depths of winter in Massachusetts Bay Colony, a group of young girls in the village of Salem began acting strangely. The daughter and niece of the local minister, Samuel Parris, claimed to be afflicted by invisible forces who bit and pinched them, sending their limbs flailing. By mid-February, two more girls had joined them, and the first waves of panic gripped Salem’s residents: The girls had been bewitched.

The afflicted girls soon accused three women: the Parris’ “Indian” slave, Tituba; a local beggar woman, Sarah Good; and an invalid widow, Sarah Osbourne. As local magistrates began questioning the accused, people packed into a tavern to witness the girls come face to face with the women they had accused of witchcraft.

While the other two women denied the accusations against them, Tituba told vivid stories of how Satan had revealed himself to her. She said she had signed the devil’s book with her own blood, and seen the marks of Good and Osbourne there beside her own.

Tituba’s riveting testimony helped unleash a notorious witch hunt that swept quickly beyond Salem and engulfed all of New England. Close to 200 people would be accused before the Salem Witch Trials ended the following year, and 20 of them would be executed by hanging over the summer and fall of 1692. These are five of their stories.

Salem witch trials: Bridget Bishop is Hanged at Gallows Hill near Salem, Massachusetts, for “Certaine Detestable Arts called Witchcraft and Sorceries” on June 10, 1692

Bridget Bishop

When the special Court of Oyer and Terminer convened in Salem Town in early June, the first case it heard was against Bridget Bishop, a local widow, as the prosecutor assumed her case would be easy to win. Bishop had been accused of witchcraft more than a decade earlier, but was acquitted for lack of evidence. She also fit everyone’s idea of a witch: elderly, poor and argumentative.

Ten witnesses testified against Bishop, and she was quickly found guilty and sentenced to death. On June 10, she was taken to Proctor’s Ledge near Gallows Hill in Salem and “hanged by the neck until she was dead”, according to the report of the sheriff who escorted her.

Sarah Good

By then, signs of opposition to the Salem Witch Trials had begun to surface. Several ministers questioned whether the court relied too much on spectral evidence, or testimony about the ghostly figures witches supposedly sent to afflict their victims.

“Everyone assumed there were specters who could do it”, says Margo Burns, a New Hampshire-based historian specializing in the Salem witch trials. “That was not disputed. But what was disputed was whether the devil could send the shape of an innocent person to afflict.”

Still, when the Court of Oyer and Terminer reconvened on June 28 after its success convicting Bishop, Sarah Good was quickly convicted and sentenced to death. Several of the afflicted girls claimed Good’s specter attacked them, and Tituba and several others had named her as a fellow witch in their confessions, claiming she flew on a broomstick and attended witches’ gatherings. On July 19, Good was carted to Gallows Hill and executed along with the churchgoing grandmother, Rebecca Nurse, and three other convicted witches.

Salem witch trials: Bridget Bishop is Hanged at Gallows Hill near Salem, Massachusetts, for “Certaine Detestable Arts called Witchcraft and Sorceries” on June 10, 1692

Susannah Martin

Susannah Martin did not even live in Salem, but in Amesbury, Massachusetts. Like Bishop, she had been accused of witchcraft before, but the charges had been dropped for lack of evidence. Her bad reputation may have spread to Salem by 1692, when four of the afflicted girls in Salem accused her by name, claiming her specter had attacked them.

When the court asked them how they knew the specter was Martin’s, the girls said “‘Oh, she said her name was Goody Martin and she was from Amesbury'”, Burns recounts. “They didn't even have to recognize her.” Despite the general lack of evidence against her, Martin was also convicted and hanged on July 19, the same day as Sarah Good.

Martha Carrier

When the Court of Oyer and Terminer met for a third session in early August 1692, it heard the case of Martha Carrier of Andover, which would be home to more accused witches than any other town. “Her family was very unpopular”, Burns says of Carrier; they were thought to have brought smallpox to Andover. After Carrier was accused, the authorities interrogated her two teenage sons, torturing them into confessing to witchcraft themselves, and implicating their mother.

In “The Wonders of the Invisible World”, his famous account of the Salem Witch Trials, Cotton Mather memorably called Carrier a “rampant hag” who aspired to be “Queen of Hell.” The court convicted Carrier in the same session as two prominent male victims of the witch hunts, John Proctor and Reverend George Burroughs, whom people suspected of being the ringleader of Salem’s witches. On August 19, Carrier went to Gallows Hill along with Proctor, Burroughs and two other men - she was the only woman exe

Salem witch trials: Bridget Bishop is Hanged at Gallows Hill near Salem, Massachusetts, for “Certaine Detestable Arts called Witchcraft and Sorceries” on June 10, 1692

Martha Cory

Like Rebecca Nurse, Martha Cory was far from the usual witch suspect, who tended to be a poor outcast. She was a covenanted member of her church, and was considered an upstanding member of the community. But Martha had attracted suspicion after she tried to stop her husband, Giles, from attending one of the early examinations in the witch trials, even going so far as to hide his saddle. Shortly after this, one of the afflicted girls accused Martha of bewitching her and turning her blind.

Martha’s defiant attitude turned court officials against her, and Giles refused to corroborate her testimony, and even testified against her—at least until he himself was accused. Less than two weeks after Martha was found guilty and sentenced to death, Giles was pressed to death after he refused to enter a plea in his own trial. On September 22, Martha Cory went to the gallows along with seven other convicted witches, in what would be the last hangings of the Salem Witch Trials.

History Channel / Wikipedia / Encyclopedia Britannica / Biography / Smithsonian / History of Massachusetts.org / Salem witch trials: Bridget Bishop is Hanged at Gallows Hill near Salem, Massachusetts, for “Certaine Detestable Arts called Witchcraft and Sorceries” on June 10, 1692 (YouTube) video

“This Day in History”

This Day in History June 10

• 1793 French Revolution: Reign of Terror; Following the arrests of Girondin leaders, the Jacobins gain control of the Committee of Public Safety installing the revolutionary dictatorship.

• 1838 Myall Creek massacre: Brutal killing of unarmed Aboriginal Australians.

• 1854 The United States Naval Academy graduates its first class of students.

• 1898 Spanish–American War: Battle of Guantánamo Bay; U.S. Marines begin the American invasion of Spanish-held Cuba.

• 1940 World War II: The Kingdom of Italy declares war on France and the United Kingdom.

• 1940 World War II: Resistance to the German occupation of Norway ends.

• 1942 World War II: Nazis burn the Czech village of Lidice in reprisal for the killing of Reinhard Heydrich.

• 1944 World War II: Oradour-sur-Glane massacre; Six hundred forty-two men, women and children massacred at Oradour-sur-Glane, France.

• 1944 World War II: Distomo massacre; In Distomo, Boeotia, Greece, 218 men, women and children are massacred by German troops.

• 1944 In baseball, 15-year-old Joe Nuxhall of the Cincinnati Reds becomes the youngest player ever in a major-league game.

Understanding Military Terminology: At the Marine Corps Museum: Norman Rockwell's “The War Hero”

Understanding Military Terminology

Operations Security

A capability that identifies and controls critical information, indicators of friendly force actions attendant to military operations, and incorporates countermeasures to reduce the risk of an adversary exploiting vulnerabilities.

See also Operations Security Indicators; Operations Security Measures; Operations Security Planning Guidance; Operations Security Vulnerability.

Joint Publications (JP 3-13.3) Operations Security

Operations Security Assessment

(DOD) Methods and means to gain and maintain essential secrecy about critical information.

Joint Publications (JP 3-13.3) Operations Security

Operations Security Countermeasures

(DOD) Methods and means to gain and maintain essential secrecy about critical information.

Joint Publications (JP 3-13.3) Operations Security

Operations Security Indicators

(DOD) Friendly detectable actions and open-source information that can be interpreted or pieced together by an adversary to derive critical information.

Joint Publications (JP 3-13.3) Operations Security

Operations Security Planning Guidance

(DOD) Guidance that defines the critical information requiring protection from the adversary and outlines provisional measures to ensure secrecy.

Joint Publications (JP 3-13.3) Operations Security

Operations Security Survey

(DOD) A collection effort by a team of subject matter experts to reproduce the intelligence image projected by a specific operation or function simulating hostile intelligence processes.

Joint Publications (JP 3-13.3) Operations Security

Operations Security Vulnerability

(DOD) A condition in which friendly actions provide operations security indicators that may be obtained and accurately evaluated by an adversary in time to provide a basis for effective adversary decision making.

Joint Publications (JP 3-13.3) Operations Security

“The Odyssey”

The Old Salt’s Corner

“The Odyssey”

Book V

And now, as Dawn rose from her couch beside Tithonus- harbinger of light alike to mortals and immortals- the gods met in council and with them, Jove the lord of thunder, who is their king. Thereon Minerva began to tell them of the many sufferings of Ulysses, for she pitied him away there in the house of the nymph Calypso.

“Father Jove”, said she, “and all you other gods that live in everlasting bliss, I hope there may never be such a thing as a kind and well-disposed ruler any more, nor one who will govern equitably. I hope they will be all henceforth cruel and unjust, for there is not one of his subjects but has forgotten Ulysses, who ruled them as though he were their father. There he is, lying in great pain in an island where dwells the nymph Calypso, who will not let him go; and he cannot get back to his own country, for he can find neither ships nor sailors to take him over the sea. Furthermore, wicked people are now trying to murder his only son Telemachus, who is coming home from Pylos and Lacedaemon, where he has been to see if he can get news of his father.”

“What, my dear, are you talking about?” replied her father, “did you not send him there yourself, because you thought it would help Ulysses to get home and punish the suitors? Besides, you are perfectly able to protect Telemachus, and to see him safely home again, while the suitors have to come hurry-skurrying back without having killed him.”

When he had thus spoken, he said to his son Mercury, “Mercury, you are our messenger, go therefore and tell Calypso we have decreed that poor Ulysses is to return home. He is to be convoyed neither by gods nor men, but after a perilous voyage of twenty days upon a raft he is to reach fertile Scheria, the land of the Phaeacians, who are near of kin to the gods, and will honour him as though he were one of ourselves. They will send him in a ship to his own country, and will give him more bronze and gold and raiment than he would have brought back from Troy, if he had had had all his prize money and had got home without disaster. This is how we have settled that he shall return to his country and his friends.”

“The Odyssey” - Book V continued ...

~ Homer

Written 800 B.C.E

Translated by Samuel Butler

“The Odyssey” - Table Of Contents

“I’m Just Sayin’”

“I’m Just Sayin”

“Murder is unique in that it abolishes the party it injures,

so that society must take the place of the victim,

and on his behalf demand atonement or grant forgiveness.”

“We are all here on earth to help others;

what on earth the others are here for I don't know.”

“Choice of attention -

to pay attention to this and ignore that -

is to the inner life what choice of action is to the outer.

In both cases,

a man is responsible for his choice and must accept the consequences,

whatever they may be.”

~ W. H. Auden

“Thought for the Day”

“Thought for the Day”

“Stand up to your obstacles and do something about them.

You will find that they haven't half the strength you think they have.”

“Every problem has in it the seeds of its own solution.”

“If you don't have any problems,

then you don't get any seeds.”

“Believe in yourself!

Have faith in your abilities!

Without a humble but reasonable confidence in your own powers you cannot be successful or happy.”

~ Norman Vincent Peale

“What I Have Learned”

“What I Learned”

“A bad day sailing is 100 times better than a good day at work.”

“Sailing requires the management of all the systems on the boat,

plus all the controls on the boat,

while assessing the weather and navigation.

It's planning everything to a fine level of detail

and making the required adjustments all at the same time things are changing.”

~ Anonymous

Second Hand News

Second Hand News: Articles from Week 24 - June 08, 2020 - June 14, 2020

Top News Stories - Photos (Washington Examiner) Trump’s unexpected allies in the fight against Twitter and censorship: Facebook and the FCCMajority of Minneapolis City Council signs pledge to disband police departmentMitt Romney joins hundreds of evangelical protesters in march to White House

'Committed to shifting resources': Bill de Blasio announces NYPD funding cuts and reformsD.C. mayor won't say whether city will remove 'defund the police' street muralMore than 50 Buffalo police officers resign to protest suspension of officers who shoved 75-year-old

Hero' California sheriff's deputy killed and two others injured in ambushNot peaceful protesters’: Attorney General William Barr defends police actions at Lafayette Park by pointing to last weekend’s violenceSupreme Court ready to spark fury on gay and transgender rights

MOST READ: Ivanka Trump's commencement speech was canceled because social justice is a diseaseDevin Nunes flashes 'as many as 10' criminal referrals to Justice DepartmentBlack Lives Matter protesters graffiti Abraham Lincoln statue in London'Unhinged bias': Liberal law professor Jonathan Turley slams MSNBC for hiring Lisa Page as legal analyst

Massachusetts Attorney General Maura Healey: “‘America is burning. But that’s how forests grow”Minnesota Attorney General Keith Ellison tells people rioting in the streets over the death of George Floyd to direct their frustration toward the Minneapolis Police Department rather than the National GuardGovernors back massive protests after months of banning large gatherings Washington Examiner

Top News Stories - Photos (The Federalist) ‘Abolish The Police’ Is A Slogan For The Destruction Of AmericaAttorney General William Barr Says ‘Peaceful Protestors’ Are One Of The Big Lies Media Are PerpetuatingBarr Says CBS Report On Trump And Troops Is FalseEx-FBI Lawyer Lisa Page (famous for a series of text messages with former FBI agent, and lead agent on the Crossfire Hurricane investigation, Peter Strzok, which raised questions into the integrity of the investigation) Makes Debut As MSNBC Legal Analyst

The Lockdowns Are Now Intentional CrueltyThe ACLU’s New Curfew Position Unmasks Their HypocrisyMinneapolis Mayor Shouted Out Of Protest For Refusing To Defund The PoliceDivisive Insurrectionists Have Brought The Nation To The Brink Of Chaos

MOST READ: The Left’s Normalization Of Collective Guilt Is Ripping America ApartMedia Falsely Claimed Violent Riots Were Peaceful And That Tear Gas Was Used Against RiotersThe Media Are Lying To You About Everything, Including The Riots - Not All Black Lives Matter The SameProtests Expose Lockdowns And Social Distancing Shaming As A FarceThe Struggle Sessions Are Here, And They’re Not Going Away

‘Abolish The Police’ Is A Slogan For The Destruction Of AmericaCandace Owens: ‘George Floyd Is Not My Martyr’Here’s A List Of The Police Killed Or Injured In The Last Week’s ViolenceNFL Players Should Think Hard Before They Take A KneeThe Nation Has Gone Mad The Federalist

Top News Stories - Photos (CORRUPTION CHRONICLES - Mainstream Media Scream: (Watch Dog On-Line Publications) CORRUPTION CHRONICLES: Judicial Watch Victory: Federal Court Rules Montgomery County, MD, Program to Provide Cash Payments to Illegal Aliens Likely Violates Federal Law and Causes Irreparable Harm to Taxpayers

“Investigating the Investigators:” HEATED: Judicial Watch TESTIMONY & HIGHLIGHTS in Front of House Judiciary on Protecting the Right to Vote

LIVE INSURRECTION in America! Important Clinton Email Update, Tom Fitton Testifies to Congress & MORE!

Judicial Watch and Election Integrity Project California Both Work to Restore Voter Confidence Nationwide Judicial Watch

OUTING FAKE NEWS OMISSIONS and DISTORTIONS: They Have Their Scalp: New York Times Editor Bows to Mob, Resigns Over Tom Cotton ColumnPhiladelphia Inquirer Staff Revolts Over Factual Headline: 'Buildings Matter, Too'On CNN New York Times Writerand founder of the factually-inaccurate 1619 Project: Treating ‘Rogue’ Republican Party Fairly ‘Doesn’t Actually Work’Twitter Gaffe: NPR, Washigton Post Reporters Compare D-Day Forces to....ANTIFA!?

New York Times Fake News: ‘President Says Job Report Makes ‘A Great Day’ For Floyd’ABC’s Martha Raddatz Downplays Murdered Cops, Gets Rebuked By DHS SecretaryABC Claims Trump Wanted ‘Combat Troops’ in D.C., Ignored Ambush of CopsCNN Urges Parents to Talk to Kids About Their Privilege News Busters

Why Do Tires Have to Be Filled With Air - Can't they be made out of solid rubber instead? Mr. Answer Man Please Tell Us: Why Do Tires Have to Be Filled With Air - Can't they be made out of solid rubber instead?

What are Pneumatic Tires?

There are two types of tires, air pneumatics and solid pneumatics (non-pneumatics). The air pneumatics tires are similar to your regular car or truck tires, and are most commonly used are filled with air. Solid pneumatics (non-pneumatics) are made of rubber or other composites and more puncture proof.

If you have nails, rocks, or other sharp objects around the yard or workspace, you may want to lean more towards the solid pneumatic option. airless tires are already used on some vehicles, like riding lawn mowers, golf cars, AWPs, and some forklifts. The benefits are obvious: airless tires will theoretically never go flat. This is particularly important for heavy equipment, especially when tire punctures are common on the job. These tires are require considerably less maintenance, especially for those smaller vehicles.

Tires with something in them weigh less than the empty tires, which could have a drastic effect on your car’s fuel economy. The air in the tires can often absorb impact of a hole or bump because of it’s high suspension capabilities. On airless tires, the suspension would be lower, resulting in a rougher ride.

Why Do Tires Have to Be Filled With Air - Can't they be made out of solid rubber instead?

What are Pneumatic Tires?

Pneumatic tires filled with air seem like the last anachronistic, 19th-century component of a modern automobile, and an idea which should have disappeared many decades ago. In an era where even the internal combustion engine itself is giving way to electric motors, and where a new economy hatchback has exponentially more computing power than the Space Shuttle, pneumatic tires don’t seem to make sense any longer.

(Modern tires are vastly more advanced and reliable and capable than their 1930s counterparts. Blowouts, which were a common occurrence when I was a kid, are pretty much unheard of today. Modern tires are great, but they are still vulnerable and maintenance-intensive.)

Companies have experimented with non-pneumatic passenger vehicle tires in the modern age - one of the primary drivers was Michelin. But the tires weren’t filled with solid rubber. In fact, they didn’t even have sidewalls. They were open on the sides, and they had a support lattice of structural polyester ribs, with a ton of air space between the contact patch and the (now deformable) wheel.

One of the big problems with switching from pneumatic tires to non-pneumatic tires is the fact that the current air-filled tire is an important component of the suspension of a vehicle. The flex in the sidewall is a critical part of the compliance of the suspension and substantially affects a vehicle's ride and handling. (Which is why race car drivers sweat tire pressures at each corner of the vehicle so much, as even a small change in tire pressure can have a big effect on the handling and grip of a vehicle.)

If a company like Michelin wants to make a non-pneumatic tire, they'll improve their chances of finding success with it if the new design mimics the compliance and flex characteristics of the outgoing, air-filled models as closely as possible. That way, Michelin would be able to sell the new, non-pneumatic design as a retrofit to older vehicles whose suspensions were originally designed with pneumatic tires in mind. And that is hugely important because if they can’t, it becomes much more difficult to convince manufacturers to change over to the new design

- particularly after the mild debacle of Michelin’s failed “TRX” metric tire idea of the 1980s, which required the use of a special wheel and which, despite being by most accounts a superior design in almost every way, never really took off. (Owners of 1980s Ferrari 512 Berlinetta Boxers and some Saab 900 turbos will know are particularly sensitive here.)

Non-pneumatic Michelin tires are also rather weird looking, and it’s not clear which manufacturers, if any, would take the risk of being the first to offer them on a new car.

So that is the real issue: Any non-pneumatic tire design must be not only clearly superior to the pneumatic designs of the past, but it must be functionally identical to the outgoing models they would replace, and they must be visually acceptable to consumers.

Pneumatic tires are a 19th-century application still being used on 21st-century vehicles, and at some point that needs to change.

Quora / Wikipedia / Encyclopedia Britannica / Continental Tire / Goodyear / Depaula Chevrolet / Road and Track / National Geographic / Why Do Tires Have to Be Filled With Air - Can't they be made out of solid rubber instead? (YouTube) video

NAVSPEAK aka U.S. Navy Slang - U.S. Navy

NAVSPEAK aka U.S. Navy Slang

Motrin: A magical pill dispensed by hospital corpsmen capable for minor owies or to hypochondriacs; “Take two aspirin and call me in the morning.” Also called Vitamin M and Grunt Candy, the latter especially when dispensed to Marines.

Mouse House (Submarine Service):

1. (Ballistic Missile Submarine description of) those areas which are usually occupied by Missile Technicians.

2. MCC (Missile Control Center).


Just for MARINES - The Few. The Proud.

Just for you MARINE

Moonbeam: Flashlight.

MOPP: Mission Oriented Protective Posture, or an out-of-date term for the defense equipment (gas masks and overgarment suits) worn to protect against Nuclear, Biological, and Chemical weapons.

Mosquito Wings or Skeeter Wings: Rank insignia for a Private First Class, a single chevron.

Motivator: Term of endearment from a senior to a junior Marine, so named when the junior displays motivation for his or her duties.

Moto: Short for Motivated/motivating A person, object, or event that would motivate an individual Marine.

Moto Tats: Tattoos displaying USMC logos or slogans, often gotten by young Marines right out of basic training, that are looked upon as being overly gratuitous and boastful.

Motarded: Displaying excess motivation, often in the form of visual symbols and lore (such as unit logos); a combination of the terms “moto” and “retarded”.

Motor T or MT: Motor Transport, a subunit of Marines responsible for the operation and maintenance of wheeled non-combat and non-engineer vehicles.

MOUT: Military Operation in Urban Terrain.

MOS: Military Occupational Specialty, a job classification.

MP: Military Police, mostly replaced by PMO.

MRE: Meal, Ready-to-Eat, standard U.S. field ration. Sometimes jokingly referred to with backronyms such as “Meals Rejected by the Enemy”, “Meals Rejected by Ethiopia”, “Meal, Rotten to Eject”, “Meals Rarely Eaten”, “Meal, Refusing to Exit”, “Meal, Reluctant to Exit”, “Mister E”, or the “Three Lies for the Price of One”.

MRE bomb: Bursting plastic bag made from chemical heating pouches found inside of a standard MRE.


Naval Aviation Squadron Nicknames

Naval Aviation Squadron Nicknames

HSM-48 Helicopter Maritime Strike (HSM) Squadron FORTY EIGHT- nicknamed the “Vipers”

United States Navy Naval Air Station - Naval Air Station Mayport, Mayport, Florida / Helicopter Maritime Strike Wing Atlantic - Squadron Lineage; HSL-48: September 7. 1989 - May 2014 / HSM-48: May 2014 – present.

Where Did That Saying Come From

Where Did That Saying Come From?

Where Did That Saying Come From? “All's fair in love and war”

All's fair in love and war:

Meaning: The proverbial saying 'All's fair in love and war' expresses the idea that, like war, where any strategy is accepted, affairs of the heart are also no-holds-barred contests.

History: In common with many proverbs, the basic idea behind 'All's fair in love and war' existed in other forms before it took on the wording we now use. These variants are often in other languages which may supersede the English version.

The first known example of the proverb I know of is in the English writer and courtier John Lyly's romantic novel Euphues, 1578:

“Anye impietie may lawfully be committed in love, which is lawlesse.”

Soon after the end of the Tudor era the Irish translator Thomas Shelton published an English version of Cervantes' Don Quixote, 1620:

“Love and warre are all one [Spanish - el amor y la guerra son vna misma cosa]: and as in warre it is lawful to use sleights and stratagems to overcome the enemy: So in amorous strifes and competencies, Impostures and juggling tricks are held for good, to attaine to the wished end.”

Almost a century later we find a version of the proverb that is close to its present form - in The Artful Husband, 1717, the comic play by the English lawyer and playwright William Taverner:

“All advantages are fair in Love and War.”

Finally, in 1789, we get to the proverb in the form we now use it - in the novel The Relapse, or Myrtle Bank:

“Tho' this was a confounded lie, my friend, ‘all is fair in love and war’.”


Science & Technology

Science & Technology

Science & Technology

New danger for corals in warming oceans: Metal pollutionFirst detection of sugars in meteorites gives clues to origin of lifeMachine learning-assisted molecular design for high-performance organic photovoltaic materialsFlexible organic electrodes built using water-processed silver nanowires Phys.org / MedicalXpress / TechXplore

Did Hitchhiking Sugars on Asteroids Help Jumpstart Life on Earth?Titan's New Geologic Map Shows Why It's One of the Most Exciting Moons in the Solar SystemHow Nanotech Will Help the U.S. Military Reach Mach 5Bill Gates's Secret Solar Startup Has Generated Extreme Heat with Mirrors Popular Mechanics

Bizarre News (we couldn’t make up stuff this good – real news story)

Bizarre News (we couldn’t make up stuff this good - real news story)

When stuck in water, bees create a wave and hydrofoil atop it

When stuck in water, bees create a wave and hydrofoil atop it

Source: California Institute of Technology

Summary: Ever see a bee stuck in a pool? He's surfing to escape.

Walking on Caltech's campus, research engineer Chris Roh (MS '13, PhD '17) happened to see a bee stuck in the water of Millikan Pond. Although it was a common-enough sight, it led Roh and his advisor, Mory Gharib (PhD '83), to a discovery about the potentially unique way that bees navigate the interface between water and air.

Roh spied the bee during California's years-long drought, when the pond's fountain was turned off and the water was still. The incident occurred around noon, so the overhead sun cast the shadows of the bee - and, more importantly, the waves churned by the flailing bee's efforts - directly onto the bottom of the pool.

As the bee struggled to make its way to the edge of the pond, Roh noticed that the shadows on the pool's bottom showed the amplitude of the waves generated by the bee's wings, as well as the interference pattern created as the waves from each individual wing crashed into each other.

“I was very excited to see this behavior and so I brought the honeybee back to the lab to take a look at it more closely”, Roh says.

Slow-motion video revealed the source of the potentially life-saving asymmetry: rather than just flapping up and down in the water, the bee's wings pronate, or curve downward, when pushing down the water and supinate (curve upward) when pulling back up, out of the water. The pulling motion provides thrust, while the pushing motion is a recovery stroke.

When stuck in water, bees create a wave and hydrofoil atop it

In addition, the wingbeats in water are slower, with a stroke amplitude -- the measure of how far their wings travel when they flap -- of less than 10 degrees, as opposed to 90-120 degrees when they are flying through the air. Throughout the entire process, the dorsal (or top) side of the wing remains dry while the underside clings to the water. The water that remains attached to the underside of the wing gives the bees the extra force they use to propel themselves forward.

“Water is three orders of magnitude heavier than air, which is why it traps bees. But that weight is what also makes it useful for propulsion”, Roh says.

“The bees do not seem to be able to generate enough force to free themselves directly from the water, but their wing motion can propel them to the edge of a pool or pond, where they can pull themselves onto dry land and fly off. Hydrofoiling is a lot more taxing for the bees than is flying”, says Roh, who estimates that the bees could keep up the activity for about 10 minutes, giving them a fixed window to find the edge of the water and escape.

“The motion has never been documented in other insects, and may represent a unique adaptation by bees”, Roh says.

“On hot days, bee hives require water to cool off”, Roh says. “So when the temperature rises, workers are sent out to gather water instead of pollen." The bees will find a water source, swallow some into a special chamber in their bodies, and then fly off. Sometimes, however, they fall in. And if they cannot free themselves, they die.”

Roh and Gharib, who work in Caltech's Center for Autonomous Systems and Technologies (CAST), have already started applying their findings to their robotics research, developing a small robot that uses a similar motion to navigate the surface of water. Though labor-intensive, the motion could one day be used to generate robots capable of both flying and swimming.

The study is titled “Honeybees use their wings for water surface locomotion.” It was funded by the National Science Foundation and Caltech.

Science Daily (11/19/2019) video

Second Hand News

Second Hand News: Articles from Week 24 - June 08, 2020 - June 14, 2020

Top News Stories - Photos (Daily Mail) Can a city survive without a police force? Minneapolis is about to find out: Council votes to dismantle 'toxic' police force over mayor's objectionsNYC Mayor Bill de Blasio says he will CUT funds from the NYPD's $6billion budget and redistribute it to social services and youth programmingSheriff's deputy is killed and two other officers are shot in an 'ambush' after being called to check on a van that was reported to be full of explosives

'Trump says he's 'proud of Tom Cotton' after New York Times opinion editor James Bennet QUITS over 'Send in the Troop's op-ed by Senator who claims the newspaper surrendered to a 'woke child mob'Trump denounces kneeling as 'disrespecting our country & our flag' as he appears to turn on Roger Goodell after the NFL chief admitted he was wrong to oppose Colin Kaepernick Attorney General William Barr defends America's police force and THAT attack on protesters to make way for Trump - saying ONLY pepper balls were used not 'chemical irritants'

Hillary Clinton asks how anyone with a 'beating heart and a working mind can still support' Trump - claiming he made race riots and covid pandemic 'all about him'New Zealand ends its lockdown after eradicating Covid-19 with NO active cases, as Jacinda Ardern says: 'We have crushed the virus'That's all, folks: New Looney Toons will strip Elmer Fudd and Yosemite Sam of their rifles and pistols in response to US gun violence - but they will still get knives and TNT to hunt Bugs Bunny Daily Mail

Top News Stories - Photos (John Batchelor)

Rod Rosenstein has a lot to answer for. audio   - Rod Rosenstein cannot recall & What is to be done? audio  

#SmallBusinessAmerica: Jobs surprise is the happy reopening. audio   - #SmallBusinessAmerica: Restaurateurs, hoteliers and swimming pool firms adapt quickly. audio  

The 2020 disorder is product of five decades of trillions in failed progressive urban policy. audio   - Simultaneously the disorder and the reopening in D.C. audio  

Congress waives lawmaking, entrusts it to administrators. audio   - Krugman apologizes to Bureau Labor Statistics 2400 honest professionals. audio   John Batchelor (06/10/2020)

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“Train Kept A-Rollin'” - The Yardbirds 1965

“Train Kept A-Rollin'” - The Yardbirds
Album: Having a Rave Up With the Yardbirds
Released 1965 video

Train Kept A-Rollin'video is about a guy who is blown away by a woman, but he has to act cool to make sure he doesn't scare her away. The train rolling is in reference to sex.

This track was produced by Sam Phillips of Sun Records, the man who signed Elvis Presley.

Written by Tiny Bradshaw, Howard Kay, and Syd Nathan (Lois Mann), this song was originally performed by Tiny Bradshaw's Big Band video in 1951. Johnny Burnette recorded a rock version video in 1956, and The Yardbirds popularized the song with their rendition in 1965. Aerosmith covered it video in 1974, often playing the song as their encore in their early years. In the '60s, Aerosmith were on the same bill as The Yardbirds for some shows, and former Yardbird Jeff Beck opened some shows for them in the '70s.

In the beginning of the song, Jeff Beck used his guitar to create the train whistle sound.

There are two voices singing throughout the song. Both belong to lead singer Keith Relf. In the beginning, they sing different words, but by the end, both sing in unison.

When Jimmy Page joined the band and he was playing lead guitar with Jeff Beck, The Yardbirds appeared in the 1966 Michelangelo Antonioni film Blowup playing a new version of this song re-titled “Stroll Onvideo. The Yardbirds appeared as a band in the film, which is about a London fashion photographer who may have witnessed a murder. It was one of the first major films with a full frontal nudity scene.

In an interview with Q Magazine January 2008, John Paul Jones recalls this was the first ever song he played with Robert Plant, Jimmy Page and John Bonham after joining Led Zeppelin:

“I can remember the first song I played with Led Zeppelin in a tiny basement room in Soho in 1968, with wall-to-wall amps. That was 'Train Kept A-Rollin',' The Yardbirds song, which I didn't know at the time. But I knew immediately, 'This is fun'.”

The Yardbirds official site / Rock & Roll Hall of Fame / Billboard / All Music / Song Facts / The Yardbirds

Image: “Having a Rave Up With the Yardbirds (album)” by The Yardbirds



● The beaver is the national emblem of which country?

Answer to Trivia

● What is the name of the city where the cartoon family The Simpsons live?

Answer to Trivia

● The title role of the 1990 movie “Pretty Woman” was played by which actress?

Answer to Trivia

● Which part of the body would a chiropodist treat?

Answer to Trivia

● How many sides does an octagon have?

Answer to Trivia


A Test for People Who Know Everything

From the Jeopardy Archives Category - “SAILING LITERATURE” ($200)

“The vessel in Lothar-Gunther Buchheim's claustrophobic World War II novel 'Das Boot' is one of these.”

Answer for People Who Do Not Know Everything, or Want to Verify Their Answer Wikipedia

From the Jeopardy Archives Category - “SAILING LITERATURE” ($400)

“For poet John Masefield, 'All I ask is a tall ship and' this 'to steer her by'.”

Answer for People Who Do Not Know Everything, or Want to Verify Their Answer Poetry Foundation.org

From the Jeopardy Archives Category - “SAILING LITERATURE” ($600)

“'My purpose holds to sail beyond the sunset', he says in a Tennyson poem that bears his name, set.”

Answer for People Who Do Not Know Everything, or Want to Verify Their Answer Poetry Foundation.org

From the Jeopardy Archives Category - “SAILING LITERATURE” ($800)

“A strange ship called the Demeter brings this character to England, but its crew is gone & the captain is dead!.”

Answer for People Who Do Not Know Everything, or Want to Verify Their Answer Cliffs Notes

From the Jeopardy Archives Category - “SAILING LITERATURE” ($1,000)

“The third Narnia book is 'The Voyage of' this ship that sails through magic waters to the end of the world.”

Answer for People Who Do Not Know Everything, or Want to Verify Their Answer Wikipedia

Answer to Last Week's Test

From the Jeopardy Archives Category - “CLASSIC COUNTRY SONGS” ($200)

“In the Hank Williams song, it precedes, 'Whatcha got cookin'? How's about cookin' somethin' up with me?'”

● Answer: Hey, Good Lookin. YouTube

From the Jeopardy Archives Category - “CLASSIC COUNTRY SONGS” ($400)

“We bet you know this Kenny Rogers song that says 'you got to know when to hold 'em, know when to fold 'em'.”

● Answer: The Gamble. YouTube

From the Jeopardy Archives Category - “CLASSIC COUNTRY SONGS” ($600)

“She wrote the children's book 'Coat of Many Colors' using lyrics from her classic song.”

● Answer: Dolly Parton. YouTube

From the Jeopardy Archives Category - “CLASSIC COUNTRY SONGS” ($800)

“Marty Robbins sang, 'Out in the west Texas town of' this 'I fell in love with a Mexican girl'.”

● Answer: El Paso. YouTube

From the Jeopardy Archives Category - “CLASSIC COUNTRY SONGS” ($1,000)

“She got her big break in 1957 after winning 'Arthur Godfrey's Talent Scouts' with the song heard HERE.”

● Answer: Patsy Cline. YouTube

Joke of the Day

Joke of the Day

Joke of the Day


How does an attorney sleep? Well, first he lies on one side, then he lies on the other.

You’ve heard that one, along with a million other lawyer jokes that people have sprung on you from the moment you first announced you were going to school to be a paralegal. Some of them probably even get told around the law office. Even lawyers like to laugh and there are a lot of aspects of legal practice that are ripe for a little deadpan humor.


Joke of the Day

“No Good Question Goes Unbilled”

A man went to a lawyer and asked what his fee was.

“$100 for three questions”, answered the lawyer.

“Isn’t that a little steep?” said the man.

“Yes”, said the lawyer. “Now, what’s your third question?”

Joke of the Day

“Unless It’s One of Our Witnesses, Of Course”

What separates witnesses from the lowest form of life on earth?

The wooden partitions around the witness stand.

“You Can’t Get Mad at Gravity”

How do you get a lawyer out of a tree?

Cut the rope.