Old Sailors' Almanac

THIS WEEK IN HISTORY

Week 01, 2019

Previous Week   December 31, 2018 - January 06, 2019   Next Week

The United States Congress certifies Donald Trump winner of 2016 presidential election on January 06, 2016

The United States Congress certifies Donald Trump winner of 2016 presidential election on January 06, 2016

First commercial movie screened: The Congress meets in joint session to count the electoral votes.

The Vice President, as President of the Senate, presides over the count and announces the results of the Electoral College vote. The President of the Senate then declares which persons, if any, have been elected President and Vice President of the United States.

If a State submits conflicting sets of electoral votes to Congress, the two Houses acting concurrently may accept or reject the votes. If they do not concur, the votes of the electors certified by the Governor of the State on the Certificate of Ascertainment would be counted in Congress.

If no Presidential candidate wins 270 or more electoral votes, a majority, the 12th Amendment to the Constitution provides for the House of Representatives to decide the Presidential election. If necessary the House would elect the President by majority vote, choosing from the three candidates who received the greatest number of electoral votes. The vote would be taken by state, with each state having one vote.

If no Vice Presidential candidate wins 270 or more electoral votes, a majority, the 12th Amendment provides for the Senate to elect the Vice President. If necessary, the Senate would elect the Vice President by majority vote, choosing from the two candidates who received the greatest number of electoral votes. The vote would be taken by state, with each Senator having one vote.

If any objections to the Electoral College vote are made, they must be submitted in writing and be signed by at least one member of the House and one Senator. If objections are presented, the House and Senate withdraw to their respective chambers to consider their merits under procedures set out in federal law.

The 2016 Presidential Election

View results from the 2016 Presidential Election

Summary of Key Dates for the 2016 Presidential Election

The Office of the Federal Register, on behalf of the Archivist of the United States, prepares Electoral College instructional materials for the Archivist to send to the governors of the 50 States and the mayor of the District of Columbia.

The materials include:

• A letter from the Archivist—view a sample letter.

• Detailed procedural instructions and a checklist outlining the State’s responsibilities.

• A timeline of key dates for the Electoral College.

• A pamphlet highlighting the Presidential Election provisions in the Constitution and Federal Law.

Under the 23rd Amendment of the Constitution, the District of Columbia is allocated 3 electors and treated like a state for purposes of the Electoral College. For this reason, in the following discussion, the word ““state” also refers to the District of Columbia and the word “governor” also refers to the Mayor of the District of Columbia.

November 8, 2016 - Election Day

Registered voters cast their votes for President and Vice President. By doing so, they also help choose the electors who will represent their state in the Electoral College.

Mid-November through December 19, 2016

After the presidential election, the governor of your state prepares seven Certificates of Ascertainment. “As soon as practicable”, after the election results in your state are certified, the governor sends one of the Certificates of Ascertainment to the Archivist.

Certificates of Ascertainment should be sent to the Archivist no later than the meeting of the electors in December. However, federal law sets no penalty for missing the deadline.

The remaining six Certificates of Ascertainment are held for use at the meeting of the Electors in December.

December 13, 2016

States must make final decisions in any controversies over the appointment of their electors at least six days before the meeting of the Electors. This is so their electoral votes will be presumed valid when presented to Congress.

Decisions by states’ courts are conclusive, if decided under laws enacted before Election Day.

December 19, 2016

The Electors meet in their state and vote for President and Vice President on separate ballots. The electors record their votes on six “Certificates of Vote”, which are paired with the six remaining Certificates of Ascertainment.

The electors sign, seal, and certify six sets of electoral votes. A set of electoral votes consists of one Certificate of Ascertainment and one Certificate of Vote. These are distributed immediately as follows:

• One set to the President of the Senate (the Vice President) for the official count of the electoral votes in January;

• Two packages to the Secretary of State in the state where the electors met—one is an archival set that becomes part of the public record of the Secretary of State's office and the other is a reserve set that is subject to the call of the President of the Senate to replace missing or incomplete electoral votes;

• Two packages to the Archivist—one is an archival set that becomes part of the permanent collection at the National Archives and Records Administration and the other is a reserve set that is subject to the call of the President of the Senate to replace missing or incomplete electoral votes; and

• One set to the presiding judge in the district where the Electors met—this is also a reserve set that is subject to the call of the President of the Senate to replace missing or incomplete electoral votes.

December 28, 2016

Electoral votes (the Certificates of Vote) must be received by the President of the Senate and the Archivist no later than nine days after the meeting of the electors. States face no legal penalty for failure to comply.

If votes are lost or delayed, the Archivist may take extraordinary measures to retrieve duplicate originals.

On or Before January 3, 2017

The Archivist and/or representatives from the Office of the Federal Register meet with the Secretary of the Senate and the Clerk of the House in late December or early January. This is, in part, a ceremonial occasion. Informal meetings may take place earlier.

January 6, 2017

The Congress meets in joint session to count the electoral votes. Congress may pass a law to change this date.

The Vice President, as President of the Senate, presides over the count and announces the results of the Electoral College vote. The President of the Senate then declares which persons, if any, have been elected President and Vice President of the United States.

If a State submits conflicting sets of electoral votes to Congress, the two Houses acting concurrently may accept or reject the votes. If they do not concur, the votes of the electors certified by the Governor of the State on the Certificate of Ascertainment would be counted in Congress.

If no Presidential candidate wins 270 or more electoral votes, a majority, the 12th Amendment to the Constitution provides for the House of Representatives to decide the Presidential election. If necessary the House would elect the President by majority vote, choosing from the three candidates who received the greatest number of electoral votes. The vote would be taken by state, with each state having one vote.

If no Vice Presidential candidate wins 270 or more electoral votes, a majority, the 12th Amendment provides for the Senate to elect the Vice President. If necessary, the Senate would elect the Vice President by majority vote, choosing from the two candidates who received the greatest number of electoral votes. The vote would be taken by state, with each Senator having one vote.

If any objections to the Electoral College vote are made, they must be submitted in writing and be signed by at least one member of the House and one Senator. If objections are presented, the House and Senate withdraw to their respective chambers to consider their merits under procedures set out in federal law.

January 20, 2017 at Noon - Inauguration Day

The President-elect takes the Oath of Office and becomes the President of the United States.

General Authority

The Archivist of the United States, as the head of the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA), is responsible for carrying out ministerial duties on behalf of the States and the Congress under 3 U.S.C. sections 06, 11, 12, 13.

NARA is primarily responsible for coordinating the various stages of the electoral process by helping the States prepare and submit certificates that establish the appointment of electors and validate the electoral votes of each State.

The Archivist delegates operational duties to the Director of the Federal Register. The Federal Register Legal Staff ensures that electoral documents are transmitted to Congress, made available to the public, and preserved as part of our nation's history.

The Office of the Federal Register Legal Staff reviews the electoral certificates for the required signatures, seals and other matters of form, as specified in federal law.

Only the Congress and the courts have the authority to rule on substantive legal issues.

National Archives and Records Administration


Agnes Gonxha Bojaxhiu, the future Mother Teresa arrives in Calcutta, India, to begin her work among India's poorest and sick people on January 06. 1929

Agnes Gonxha Bojaxhiu, the future Mother Teresa arrives in Calcutta, India, to begin her work among India's poorest and sick people on January 06. 1929

Agnes Gonxha Bojaxhiu, the future Mother Teresa arrives in Calcutta, India, to begin her work among India's poorest and sick people: Agnes Gonxha Bojaxhiu, the future Mother Teresa, was born on 26 August 1910, in Skopje, Macedonia, to Albanian heritage. Her father, a well-respected local businessman, died when she was eight years old, leaving her mother, a devoutly religious woman, to open an embroidery and cloth business to support the family. After spending her adolescence deeply involved in parish activities, Agnes left home in September 1928, for the Loreto Convent in Rathfarnam (Dublin), Ireland, where she was admitted as a postulant on October 12 and received the name of Teresa, after her patroness, St. Therese of Lisieux.

Agnes was sent by the Loreto order to India and arrived in Calcutta on 6 January 1929. Upon her arrival, she joined the Loreto novitiate in Darjeeling. She made her final profession as a Loreto nun on 24 May 1937, and hereafter was called Mother Teresa. While living in Calcutta during the 1930s and '40s, she taught in St. Mary's Bengali Medium School.

On 10 September 1946, on a train journey from Calcutta to Darjeeling, Mother Teresa received what she termed the "call within a call," which was to give rise to the Missionaries of Charity family of Sisters, Brothers, Fathers, and Co-Workers. The content of this inspiration is revealed in the aim and mission she would give to her new institute: "to quench the infinite thirst of Jesus on the cross for love and souls" by "labouring at the salvation and sanctification of the poorest of the poor." On October 7, 1950, the new congregation of the Missionaries of Charity was officially erected as a religious institute for the Archdiocese of Calcutta.

Throughout the 1950s and early 1960s, Mother Teresa expanded the work of the Missionaries of Charity both within Calcutta and throughout India. On 1 February 1965, Pope Paul VI granted the Decree of Praise to the Congregation, raising it to pontifical right. The first foundation outside India opened in Cocorote, Venezuela, in 1965. The Society expanded to Europe (the Tor Fiscale suburb of Rome) and Africa (Tabora, Tanzania) in 1968.

From the late 1960s until 1980, the Missionaries of Charity expanded both in their reach across the globe and in their number of members. Mother Teresa opened houses in Australia, the Middle East, and North America, and the first novitiate outside Calcutta in London. In 1979 Mother Teresa was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize. By that same year there were 158 Missionaries of Charity foundations.

The Missionaries of Charity reached Communist countries in 1979 with a house in Zagreb, Croatia, and in 1980 with a house in East Berlin, and continued to expand through the 1980s and 1990s with houses in almost all Communist nations, including 15 foundations in the former Soviet Union. Despite repeated efforts, however, Mother Teresa was never able to open a foundation in China.

Mother Teresa spoke at the fortieth anniversary of the United Nations General Assembly in October 1985. On Christmas Eve of that year, Mother Teresa opened "Gift of Love" in New York, her first house for AIDS patients. In the coming years, this home would be followed by others, in the United States and elsewhere, devoted specifically for those with AIDS.

From the late 1980s through the 1990s, despite increasing health problems, Mother Teresa traveled across the world for the profession of novices, opening of new houses, and service to the poor and disaster-stricken. New communities were founded in South Africa, Albania, Cuba, and war-torn Iraq. By 1997, the Sisters numbered nearly 4,000 members, and were established in almost 600 foundations in 123 countries of the world.

After a summer of traveling to Rome, New York, and Washington, in a weak state of health, Mother Teresa returned to Calcutta in July 1997. At 9:30 PM, on 5 September, Mother Teresa died at the Motherhouse. Her body was transferred to St Thomas's Church, next to the Loreto convent where she had first arrived nearly 69 years earlier. Hundreds of thousands of people from all classes and all religions, from India and abroad, paid their respects. She received a state funeral on 13 September, her body being taken in procession - on a gun carriage that had also borne the bodies of Mohandas K. Gandhi and Jawaharlal Nehru - through the streets of Calcutta. Presidents, prime ministers, queens, and special envoys were present on behalf of countries from all over the world.

Catholic.org / Wikipedia / Encyclopedia Britannica / Mother Teresa.org / Agnes Gonxha Bojaxhiu, the future Mother Teresa arrived in Calcutta, India, to begin her work among India's poorest and sick people on January 06. 1929 (YouTube) video


“Mariner's 23rd Psalm”

The Old Salt’s Corner

“Mariner's 23rd Psalm”

The Lord is my pilot, I shall not go adrift;

He lighteth my passage across dark channels;

He steereth me through the deep waters,

He keepeth my log.

He guideth me by the evening star for my safety's sake.

Yes, though I sail mid the thunders and tempests of life,

I fear no peril, for Thou art with me,

Thy stars and heavens, they comfort me.

The vastness of the sea upholds me.

Surely fair winds and safe harbors shall be found

All the days of my life;

And I shall dock, secure forever.

~ Unknown


“I’m Just Sayin’”

“I’m Just Sayin”

“In the sweat of thy face shalt thou eat bread,

till thou return unto the ground;

for out of it wast thou taken:

for dust thou art, and unto dust shalt thou return.”

~ Genesis 3:19


“Thought for the Day”

“Thought for the Day”

“The secret to change

is to focus all of your energy,

not on fighting the old,

but on building the new.”

~ Socrates


“What I Have Learned”

“Thought for the Day”

“Every saint has a past

and every sinner has a future.”

~ Anonymous


Why Your New Year's Resolutions Fail - and How to Fix Them

Mr. Answer Man Please Tell Us: Why Your New Year's Resolutions Fail - and How to Fix Them

You don’t need a special day to come up with goals, but New Year’s Day is as good a time as any to build better habits. The problem is, by the time February rolls around, our best laid plans have often gone awry. Don’t let it happen this year: Heed these three simple tips for fail-proof resolutions.

Why Your New Year's Resolutions Fail - and How to Fix Them

PROBLEM 1: THEY’RE TOO OVERWHELMING

Solution: Set Smaller Milestones

Let’s say your goal is to pay off $5000 worth of credit card debt this year. Since you're giving yourself a long timeframe (all year) to pay it down, you end up procrastinating or splurging, telling yourself you’ll make up for it later. But the longer you push it off, the bigger and more overwhelming your once-reasonable goal can feel.

The big picture is important, but connecting your goal to the present makes it more digestible and easier to stick with. Instead of vowing to pay off $5000 by the end of next December, make it your resolution to put $96 toward your credit card debt every week, for example.

In a study from the University of Wollongong, researchers asked subjects to save using one of two methods: a linear model and a cyclical model. In the linear model, the researchers told subjects that saving for the future was important and asked them to set aside money accordingly. In contrast, they told the cyclical group:

This approach acknowledges that one’s life consists of many small and large cycles, that is, events that repeat themselves. We want you to think of the personal savings task as one part of such a cyclical life. Make your savings task a routinized one: just focus on saving the amount that you want to save now, not next month, not next year. Think about whether you saved enough money during your last paycheck cycle. If you saved as much as you wanted, continue with your persistence. If you did not save enough, make it up this time, with the current paycheck cycle.

When subjects used this cyclical model, focusing on the present, they saved more than subjects who focused on their long-term goal.

Why Your New Year's Resolutions Fail - and How to Fix Them

PROBLEM 2: THEY'RE TOO VAGUE

Solution: Make Your Goal a SMART One

“Find a better job” is a worthy goal, but it's a bit amorphous. It's unclear what “better” means to you, and it’s difficult to plot the right course of action when you’re not sure what your desired outcome is. Many resolutions are vague in this way: get in shape, worry less, spend more time with loved ones.

To make your goal actionable, it should be SMART: specific, measurable, achievable, realistic, and time-bound. When you set specific parameters and guidelines for your goal, it makes it easier to come up with an action plan. Under a bit more scrutiny, “spend more time with loved ones” might become “invite my best friends over for dinner every other Sunday night”. This new goal is specific, measurable, time-bound—it ticks all the boxes and tells you exactly what you want and how to get there.

Why Your New Year's Resolutions Fail - and How to Fix Them

PROBLEM 3: YOU FELL FOR THE “FALSE FIRST STEP”

Solution: Solution: Start With What You Already Have

“A false first step is when we try to buy a better version of ourselves instead of doing the actual work to accomplish it”, Anthony Ongaro of Break the Twitch tells. “The general idea is that purchasing something like a heart rate monitor can feel a lot like we're taking a step towards our fitness goals”, Ongaro says. “The purchase itself can give us a dopamine release and a feeling of satisfaction, but it hasn't actually accomplished anything other than spending some money on a new gadget.”

Even worse, sometimes that dopamine is enough to lure you away from your goal altogether, Ongaro says. “That feeling of satisfaction that comes with the purchase often is good enough that we don't feel the need to actually go out for a run and use it.”

Why Your New Year's Resolutions Fail - and How to Fix Them

Solution: Start With What You Already Have

You can avoid this trap by forcing yourself to start your goal with the resources you already have on hand. “Whether the goal is to learn a new language or improve physical fitness, the best way to get started and avoid the false first step is to do the best you can with what you already have”, Ongaro says. “Start really small, even learning one new word per day for 30 days straight, or just taking a quick walk around the block every day.”

This isn’t to say you should never buy anything related to your goal, though. As Ongaro points out, you just want to make sure you’ve already developed the habit a bit first. “Establish a habit and regular practice that will be enhanced by a product you may buy”, he says. ”It's likely that you won't even need that gadget or that fancy language learning software once you actually get started ... Basically, don't let buying something be the first step you take towards meaningful change in your life.”

ForbesHealthMental FlossPeoplePsychology Today(Best New Year's resolutions) / (Why New Year Resolutions Often Fail) QuaraWikipediaWhy Your New Year's Resolutions Fail - and How to Fix Them (YouTube Search) video


NAVSPEAK aka U.S. Navy Slang - U.S. Navy

NAVSPEAK aka U.S. Navy Slang

Bitchbox: Intercom or amplified circuit used to communicate between spaces of a ship. (example: 2MC, 5MC, 23MC, 26MC)

Bitching Betty: The computer generated female voice heard in an aviator's headset when something is not as it should be. She is usually worried about unsafe flight conditions or an enemy threat.

Black beret: Worn by Swift Boat and PBR Sailors, originally in Vietnam. The tradition has sporadically been followed by modern small boat sailors. (See “Brown Water Navy”).

Black box: Repair, in primarily for electronic equipment, where an entire card or subsystem is replaced, rather than individual components. As a noun the said card.

Black and Decker Pecker Wrecker (derogatory): A female who has orthodontic braces.

Black gang: A ship's engineers.

Black Hole: TThe Navy's main base at Norfolk, Virginia, so called because “it's where sailors' careers go to die”.

Black Pants: An enlisted sailor below the rank of E-7 (Chief Petty Officer). So named because of the black and khaki working uniform. See also “Blue Shirt”.

Black Shoe: Sometimes shortened to just "Shoe." Term used to describe shipboard or 'surface' officers and senior enlisted members, due to the black footwear worn while in khaki uniform. See also BROWN SHOE.


Just for MARINES - The Few. The Proud.

Just for you MARINE

Big Green Weenie: Denotes that a Marine has been “screwed over” or cheated by the Marine Corps.

Bird, Ball & Fish Hook: Derogatory term used to describe the Eagle Globe and Anchor of the beloved Marine Corps Emblem.

Binnacle List: Sick list: those excused from duty for health reasons; traditionally posted on or near the binnacle.


Naval Aviation Squadron Nicknames

Naval Aviation Squadron Nicknames

Patrol Squadron Thirty (VP-30) - nicknamed the “Pro's Nest”

United States Navy - Naval Air Station, Naval Air Station Jacksonville, Jacksonville, Florida - Established June, 30 1960.


Where Did That Saying Come From

Where Did That Saying Come From?

Where Did That Saying Come From? “Get the Sack”

Get the Sack:”  Meaning: Be dismissed from a job.

History: The probable derivation of this phrase is an allusion to tradesmen, who owned their own tools and took them with them in a bag or sack when they were dismissed from employment.

It has been known in France since the 17th century, as 'On luy a donné son sac'. The first recorded English version is in Charles Westmacott's The English Spy, 1825:

“You munna split on me, or I shall get the zack for telling on ye.”

In his 1869 'Slang Dictionary', John Hotten records these alternatives - 'get the bag' (from the North of England) and 'get the empty' (from London).

See also, “Order of the Boot”.

Order of the Boot:”  Meaning: Given the sack, that is, asked to leave your job (see 'get the sack').

History: A jokey version of 'kicked out' or 'booted out'. It also conjures up ironic images of real heraldic orders like the Order of the Garter.

The first record of 'given the boot' in print is in Sir H. Rider Haggard's Colonel Quaritch, 1888:

“Well, it's a good job anyway, and I thank God Almighty for it”, said he, “and more especial since there'll be the money to take over the Moat Farm and give that varmint Janter the boot.”

“Give him what?”

“Why, kick him out, sir, for good and all, begging your pardon, sir.”

Slightly later, as you might expect, is the first reference to 'the order of the boot', in Henry Taprell Dorling's (a.k.a. Taffrail) The Sub:

“An habitual slacker... generally got the Order of the Boot at the end of his third term.”

Phrases.org UK


Science & Technology

Science & Technology

Science & Technology

NASA spacecraft breaks record for coming closest to SunMaking a map of the brain - First-of-its-kind cellular atlas identifies neuron types, location and even functionThe 10-foot-tall microscopes helping combat world's worst diseasesTests show integrated quantum chip operations possibleDRM: Right-to-repair troops score one, happy to see you fix your phoneFrom streaming TV to Gmail, it's all about the cloudStudy uncovers high levels of previously unsuspected pollutant in homes, environment

Phys.org / MedicalXpress / TechXplore


Bizarre News (we couldn’t make up stuff this good – real news story)

Bizarre News (we couldn’t make up stuff this good – real news story)

A Deadly, Fast-Spreading Form of Super-Ice Could Be Killing Off Alien Life-Forms?

A Deadly, Fast-Spreading Form of Super-Ice Could Be Killing Off Alien Life-Forms?

It forms at speeds of more than 1,000 mph (1,600 km/h), it lies deep beneath our feet, it could destroy hopes for alien life, and — finally — scientists understand how it works.

Back in March, researchers writing in the journal Science revealed that they have found the first evidence for this ice, called “Ice VII”. Scientists had predicted its existence beforehand. Under the right conditions, it was believed, ice could form in a pool of water without a layer of heat at the leading edge of its growing surface. That - along with super-intense pressures and temperatures - would allow the ice to form without most of the usual brakes that slow its growth, Science Alert reported. It would also have a different crystal structure, or arrangement of atoms. Now, scientists say they've found that elusive ice for the first time in the frozen-water cores of diamonds that bubbled up from deep inside the Earth.

A Deadly, Fast-Spreading Form of Super-Ice Could Be Killing Off Alien Life-Forms?

The diamonds, which contained Ice VII, had come from a point inside the planet known as the mantle's “transition zone”, between 255 miles and 410 miles (410 and 660 kilometers) deep. (The mantle is the rocky layer between Earth's crust and core). And they knew that it had a crystal structure very different from the sort of ice that forms in clouds or lakes or in your freezer. [9 Strange, Scientific Excuses for Why We Haven't Found Alien Life Yet]

But they didn't know precisely how it formed, or what caused it to form that way.

New research, published in the journal Physical Review Letters, found that there are particular combinations of temperature and pressure at which Ice VII forms. The mysterious Ice VII begins to form at 20,700 times Earth's atmospheric pressure at sea level and 40.7 degrees Fahrenheit (4.9 degrees Celsius), and the pressure/temperature combinations get only more intense from there.

This could pose problems for the hunt for alien life, Physics Central reported. Pressure spikes - say, from meteor impacts — could cause the explosive formation of Ice VII on watery planets otherwise suited to alien life. But the mass formation of this cubic ice at ripping speeds would likely prevent any such life from forming or surviving. On worlds where this happens, life could get snuffed out before it really began.

Live Science (11/01/2018) video


Second Hand News

Second Hand News (Links to Articles from Week 1 - December 31, 2018 - January 06, 2019)

MEDIA’S ‘19TH NERVOUS BREAKDOWN’ AS TRUMP FULFILLS ANOTHER CAMPAIGN PROMISEJudicial Watch Sues DOJ for Special Counsel Robert Mueller’s Security Detail CostsJudicial Watch: Documents Reveal Obama State Department Urgently Provided Classified ‘Russiagate’ Documents to Multiple SenatorWhy Isn’t Department of Justice Investigating Clinton Corruption? Judicial Watch

Trump helping Europe cut the electric cordwith RussiaTrump: We need 'slightly larger version' of Obama's home 'wall'Deaths from opioid-cocaine cocktails have surged since 2010Federal judge blocks Trump rule cutting drug payments to hospitalsPresident Trump freezes federal employee payTrump urged to nationalize ‘E-Verify’ after 700 percent surge in arrests of illegal workersLockheed's $712 million F-35 upgrade drives priciest fighter's cost further toward half a trillion dollarsBald eagle lands on fans after national anthem fly-over at Cotton Bowl Washington Examiner

In Reversal, Trump Signals Further Boost in Defense SpendingOverrated or Underreported? (A look at the stories the media hyped—or largely ignored—in 2018)2018: The Year in Review Our Top Stories of 2018‘We Can’t Save Syrians Anymore, But We Can Save the Truth’James Mattis Wasn’t Ready to Serve in a Democracy (After the tributes die down, the outgoing defense secretary will be remembered for recklessly expanding, and covering up, the country’s wars) Foreign Policy

The eagle has landed: Dramatic moment bald eagle mascot named Clark goes rogue during Cotton Bowl national anthem ceremony and perches on a 'scared cr*pless' Notre Dame fan in the standsObama has a wall! Trump uses ex-president's DC home to argue for HIS border barrier, as three senior advisers cast doubt on his campaign promise being fulfilled and the shutdown rumbles on 'The only Russian Collusion was with Hillary and the Democrats': Trump slams the Mueller probe as the 'greatest Hoax in the history of American politics' as the government shutdown enters day nine 'If we had a Wall, they wouldn’t even try!': Trump blames deaths of two Guatemalan children in U.S. custody on the Democrats and bashes seven-year-old immigrant girl's father for 'not giving her water in days'Trump issues executive order freezing pay for 2.1 million federal workers in 2019 as thousands remain furloughed under government shutdownCNN's Don Lemon doubles down on controversial remarks that the 'biggest terror threat in this country is white men Daily Mail UK

North Korea Nuclear Crisis: This Year in Asia: our most popular stories from 2018 How the U.S. hurt the diplomatic push for a U.S.-China alliance in Africa Xi steers clear of trade war in glowing look back at 2018 Will China seize prized port if Kenya can’t repay belt and road loans? Chinese city names new deputy mayor – and she doesn’t fit the mould More researchers at China’s aircraft carrier builder charged with corruption South China Morning Post


© CEASAR CHOPPY by cartoonist Marty Gavin - archives Ceasar Choppy's Navy! “© CEASAR CHOPPY” by Marty Gavin

SONG FACTS

“Kashmir” - Led Zeppelin 1975

Led Zeppelin’s 10 Boldest Rip-Offs

Reasonable people can disagree on whether (and how heavily) Led Zeppelin‘s Stairway To Heavenvideo filches from Spirit’s “Taurusvideo - that’s why there’s a court case in progress. But the reason many people aren’t extending Led Zeppelin the benefit of the doubt on “Stairway” is because they have an extensive history of swiping songs from other people and giving credit only under duress.

Plenty of other bands in the 1960s played fast and loose with their songwriting credits, figuring they wouldn’t get caught:

The Rolling Stones recorded “Love in Vainvideo but didn’t credit Robert Johnson as the song’s author video.

The Beatles swiped elements from musicians ranging from Chuck Berry to Pee Wee Crayton, but were usually careful to disguise the source. Led Zeppelin, however, took the practice further than most of their peers.

Part of the band’s collective genius was that they could quote a favorite old song, and then adrenalize it and turn it into something new. John Bonham, for example, transformed the drum beat from Little Richard’s “Keep a Knockin'” into the motor behind “Rock & Roll”. For better and worse, beats aren’t protected by copyright, while melodies and lyrics are - which is why so many songwriters have sued the band. As with most aspects of their career, Led Zeppelin seemed to operate on the principle that it was better to ask for forgiveness than permission.

There are exceptions: Willie Dixon was appropriately credited as the author of “You Shook Mevideo and “I Can’t Quit You Babyvideo on the band’s debut album; when they covered Memphis Minnie’s 1929 track “When the Levee Breaksvideo on their fourth album, the members of Led Zeppelin granted themselves songwriting credits, but at least they also included Memphis Minnie.

Led Zeppelin took “some liberties, I must say”, Page admitted. “As far as my end of it goes, I always tried to bring something fresh to anything that I used”, he claimed. He put the blame on Plant: “Robert was supposed to change the lyrics, and he didn’t always do that, which is what brought on most of the grief.”

Here are 10 cases when the band, at least initially, didn’t give other songwriters their due.

1. Led ZeppelinBabe I’m Gonna Leave Youvideo

  Written by Anne BredonBabe I’m Gonna Leave You”) video - (sung by Joan Baez (1962)

This song, more than any other track on Led Zeppelin’s debut album, established their epic sweep. It was written by American folk singer Anne Bredon in the 1950s: Jimmy Page and Robert Plant, however, were fans of Joan Baez and knew the track from her 1962 album Joan Baez in Concert, Part 1. (Page has said that he learned the song “in the days of sitting in the darkness, playing my six-string behind Marianne Faithfull”.) Led Zeppelin credited the song as traditional (and gave arrangement credit to Page); in fairness to them, Baez’s album also mistakenly listed the song as traditional. Bredon was apparently unaware that Led Zeppelin had covered her song: When she found out in the Eighties, she agreed to split the royalties with the band, and is now listed as co-author.

2. Led ZeppelinDazed and Confusedvideo

  Written by Jake HolmesDazed and Confused”) video (1967)

Page also did this song with the Yardbirds, but the origin is actually singer-songwriter Jake Holmes, who included it on his 1967 album “The Above Ground Sound” of Jake Holmes. Page has claimed to be unaware of Holmes’ song, but the title and much of the music are unmistakably the same (Page rewrote most of the lyrics). Page apparently heard the song when Holmes opened for the Yardbirds at a Greenwich Village gig. For decades, Holmes declined to sue for authorship; as he put it, “I said, ‘What the hell, let him have it.'” In 2010, however, Holmes finally filed suit; the case was settled out of court and the 2012 Zeppelin live album Celebration Day credits the song as written by “Page; inspired by Jake Holmes”.

3. Led ZeppelinWhole Lotta Lovevideo

 Written by Willie DixonYou Need Love”) video - (sung by Muddy Waters (1962)

When it came time for Plant to lay down vocals over Page’s guitar riff – one of the first times he ever contributed lyrics to a Zeppelin track–he quoted from “You Need Love”, a song written by Willie Dixon and sung by Muddy Waters in 1962. (Dixon sued in 1985, settled out of court, and is now listed as co-writer.) As Plant later described it, “I just thought, ‘Well, what am I going to sing?’ That was it, a nick. Now happily paid for. At the time, there was a lot of conversation about what to do. It was decided that it was so far away in time and influence that … Well, you only get caught when you’re successful. That’s the game.” It’s worth noting, however, that only seven years separate “You Need Love” and “Whole Lotta Love”.

4. Led ZeppelinThe Lemon Songvideo

 Written by Chester Burnett (Howlin’ Wolf’s real name)Killing Floor”) video (1964)

While the famous lemon-squeezing lyric dates back to Robert Johnson’s “Traveling Riverside Blues” (also covered by Zeppelin), this song owes more to Howlin’ Wolf’s “Killing Floor”, which the band had been playing live. A lawsuit soon ensued; as a result, on some pressings of Led Zeppelin II, the track is actually listed as “Killing Floor”. Ultimately, it reverted to the citrus title, and the band now credits Chester Burnett (Howlin’ Wolf’s real name) as co-author.

5. Led ZeppelinBring It on Homevideo

 Written by Willie DixonBring It On Home”) video - (sung by Sonny Boy Williamson II (1963)

The closing track on Led Zeppelin II is a Page/Plant composition bookended by quiet bluesy sections. Those bookends, fairly blatantly, are a cover of “Bring It on Home”, the Sonny Boy Williamson blues song written by Zeppelin favorite Willie Dixon. Page complained, “The thing with ‘Bring It on Home,’ Christ, there’s only a tiny bit taken from Sonny Boy Williamson’s version and we threw that in as a tribute to him. People say, ‘Oh, “Bring It on Home” is stolen.’ Well, there’s only a little bit in the song that relates to anything that had gone before it.” However, those bookends are more than a “little bit” of the track: they form half its running time. On the live album How the West Was Won, released in 2003, the band designated their middle composition as “Bring It on Back” and gave appropriate credit to Dixon.

6. Led ZeppelinSince I’ve Been Loving Youvideo

 Written by Bob MosleyNever”) video - (sung by Moby Grape (1968)

Another track with uncredited elements on loan from another song: In this case, some of the lyrics came from “Never”, released just two years earlier by one of Plant’s favorite bands, Moby Grape: “Working from 11 to 7 every night/Ought to make life a drag” became “Working from 7 to 11 every night/It really makes life a drag”.

7. Led ZeppelinBron-Y-Aur Stompvideo

 Written by Bert JanschThe Waggoner’s Lad”) video (1966)

Jimmy Page often cited Scottish folk musician Bert Jansch as an influence. So much so that two Zeppelin tracks bear strong similarities to recordings Jansch made: “Black Mountain Sidevideo borrows heavily from “Down by Blackwatersidevideo, while “Bron-Y-Aur Stomp” is clearly a reworking of Jansch’s “The Waggoner’s Lad”. Jansch never sued: Although Page gave himself writing credits, the original material is based on folk melodies. But one of Jansch’s bandmates in Pentangle, Jacqui McShee complained, “It’s a very rude thing to do. Pinch somebody else’s thing and credit it to yourself”.

8. Led ZeppelinHats Off to (Roy) Harpervideo

 Written by Booker (Bukka) WhiteShake 'Em On Down”) video (1937)

The last track on Led Zeppelin III, named in tribute to the band’s chum Roy Harper, throws together bits and pieces of various blues songs, most prominently Bukka White’s “Shake ‘Em on Down”, released in 1937. The band listed the author as “Traditional” and the arrangement as being by “Charles Obscure” (a pseudonym for Page).

9. Led ZeppelinIn My Time of Dyingvideo

 Written by Blind Willie JohnsonJesus Make Up My Dying Bed”) video (1927)

This 11-minute Physical Graffiti track is credited to Jimmy Page, Robert Plant, John Paul Jones and John Bonham, but it’s clearly the traditional gospel song that was recorded by many other people, starting with Blind Willie Johnson in 1927 (his version was called “Jesus Make Up My Dying Bed”) and including Bob Dylan in 1962 (he called it “In My Time of Dyin'video and made no claim on authorship). No lawsuit resulted: The song is in the public domain.

10. Led ZeppelinBoogie With Stuvideo

 Written by Ritchie ValensOoh My Head”) video (posthumously released by Del-Fi Records in March 1959)

This excellent cover of Ritchie Valens’ song “Ooh My Head” was originally intended for Zeppelin’s fourth album with a title of “Sloppy Drunk”. Eventually released on Physical Graffiti, the song was credited to the four members of Led Zeppelin, plus titular pianist Ian Stewart, and “Mrs. Valens”, in an effort to get some royalties directly to the mother of the original singer, who had died in a 1959 plane crash. “Robert did lean on that lyric a bit”, Page conceded. “So what happens? They try to sue us for all the song!» he said indignantly, as if the band hadn’t borrowed the song’s melody wholesale. “We could not believe it”.

Led Zeppelin, official website / Rolling Stone / Billboard / All Music / Song Facts / Ultimate Classic Rock / Led Zeppelin

Image: “Physical Graffiti (album)” by Led Zeppelin


Trivia

Trivia

● What two teams played in the first Super Bowl game, on January 15, 1967 and who won?

Answer to Trivia

● Which 1959 film, directed by Howard Hawks, starred Dean Martin, John Wayne, and Ricky Nelson?

Answer to Trivia

● What is the term for music gradually becoming louder?

Answer to Trivia

● Which U.S. state's official song comes from a Broadway musical?

Answer to Trivia


Jeopardy

A Test for People Who Know Everything

From the Jeopardy Archives Category - “NFL QUARTERBACKS” ($600):

“In the '70s this Cowboys quarterback was called 'Captain Comeback' & 'Roger the Dodger'.”

Answer for People Who Do Not Know Everything, or Want to Verify Their Answer Dallas Morning News

From the Jeopardy Archives Category - “NFL QUARTERBACKS” ($800):

“NFL quarterback Archie Manning never reached the Super Bowl, but these 2 sons have each won a Super Bowl MVP award.”

Answer for People Who Do Not Know Everything, or Want to Verify Their Answer Indy Star

From the Jeopardy Archives Category - “NFL QUARTERBACKS” ($1,000):

“This Vikings quarterback co-hosted 'That's Incredible!' & spoke at the 2016 Republican convention.”/p>

Answer for People Who Do Not Know Everything, or Want to Verify Their Answer Minneapolis Star Tribune


Answer to Last Week's Test

From the Jeopardy Archives Category - “BIRDS OF A FEATHER” ($200):

“Western screech, snowy, elf.”

● Answer: Owls. Live Science

From the Jeopardy Archives Category - “BIRDS OF A FEATHER” ($400):

“Calliope, Anna's, ruby-throated.”

● Answer: Hummingbirds. Audubon.org

From the Jeopardy Archives Category - “BIRDS OF A FEATHER” ($1,000):

“Andean condor, turkey, Egyptian.”/p>

● Answer: Vultures. National Geographic


Joke of the Day

Joke of the Day

“Dirty Jokes That Will Make You Laugh So Hard.”

“Dirty Jokes That Will Make You Laugh So Hard.”

“The Boss Wondered Why”

Joke of the Day

“The boss Wondered Why”

The boss wondered why one of his most valued employees was absent, but had not phoned in.

Needing to have an urgent work problem resolved, he dialed the employee's home phone number and was greeted by a child's whispered, “Hello.”

“Is your Daddy home?” he asked.

“Yes”, whispered the small voice.

“May I talk with him?”

The child whispered, “No.”

Surprised and wanting to talk with an adult, the boss asked, “Is your Mommy there?”

“Yes.”

“May I talk with her?”

Again the small voice whispered, “No.”

Hoping there was someone with whom he could leave a message, the boss asked, “Is anyone else there?”

“Yes”, whispered the child, "a policeman.”

Wondering what a cop would be doing at his employee's home, the boss asked, “May I speak with the policeman?”

“No, he's busy”, whispered the child.

“Busy doing what?”

“Talking to Mommy and Daddy and the Fireman”, came the whispered answer.

Growing more worried as he heard a loud noise through the earpiece on the phone, the boss asked, “What is that noise?”

“A helicopter”, answered the whispering voice.

“What is going on there?” demanded the boss, now truly apprehensive.

Again, whispering, the child answered, “The search team just landed a helicopter.”

Alarmed, confused, and a little frustrated, the boss asked, “What are they searching for?”

Still whispering, the young voice replied with a muffled giggle...“Me!”